Research: YOUNG and co-workers,

Listed in Issue 142


YOUNG and co-workers, Lipid and Diabetes Research Group, Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand,, have studied the effects of the antioxidant, Enzogenol, on markers of oxidative stress in smokers.


Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure and anthropometrics.


Methods: 44 chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow- mediated vasodilation.


Flow-mediated vasodilation improved in both treatment groups (p < 0.001), with no significant difference between the two groups. In the group receiving Enzogenol and vitamin C, protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced compared to the group taking vitamin C alone (p = 0.03). Enzogenol and vitamin C resulted in a significant reduction in fibrinogen levels in heavy smokers compared with vitamin C alone (p < 0.009).


These findings demonstrate that co-supplementation with Enzogenol and vitamin C in smokers conferred no additional beneficial effect on endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels (and hence possibly the risk of thrombosis).


Young JM, Shand BI, McGregor PM, Scott RS, Frampton CM. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radical Research 40 (1): 85-94, Jan 2006.

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