Research: SONG and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 264

Abstract

SONG and COLLEAGUES, 1. Research Institute for Marine Drugs and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China; Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Science, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. Electronic address: cai.song@dal.ca; 2. Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Science, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 3. Research Institute for Marine Drugs and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China; Institute of Chemical Technologies and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia; Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia review the published literature regarding the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease.

Background

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies.

Methodology

As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA: DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear. It is also unknown whether EPA, as a DHA precursor, acts directly or via DHA.

Results

Here, we discuss recent evidence of EPA and DHA effects in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease, as well as their potential synergistic action on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neurotrophic processes in the brain. We further analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which EPA, DHA or their combination may benefit these diseases. We also outline the limitations of current studies and suggest new genetic models and novel approaches to overcome these limitations.

Conclusion

Finally, we summarize future strategies for translational research in this field.

References

Song C1, Shieh CH2, Wu YS2, Kalueff A3, Gaikwad S2, Su KP2. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically? Prog Lipid Res. 62:41-54. Apr 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2015.12.003. Epub Jan 4 2016.

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