Research: RIEDIGER and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 172

Abstract

RIEDIGER and COLLEAGUES,  Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba and Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Medicine, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada review (178 references) the evidence across a wide spectrum of clinical conditions to assess the effect of essential fatty acid supplements consumption upon quality of life.

Background

Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades.

Methodology

Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia.

Results

These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yoghurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids.

Conclusion

Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (alpha-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life. [References: 178]

References

Riediger ND, Othman RA, Suh M and Moghadasian MH. A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. [Review] [178 refs]. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109(4): 668-79. Apr 2009.

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