Research: MOLFINO and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 255

Abstract

MOLFINO and COLLEAGUES, 1. Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale dell'Università 37, 00185 Rome, Italy; 2. Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy review the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents.

Background

Prognosis and outcomes of critically ill patients are strictly related with inflammatory status. Inflammation involves a multitude of interactions between different cell types and chemical mediators.

Methodology

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are able to inhibit different pathways including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and interactions, and production of inflammatory cytokines, through the action of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs).

Results

SPMs from omega-6 fatty acids, such as lipoxins, and from omega-3 fatty acids such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins, act in reducing/resolving the inflammatory process in critical diseases, stimulating the phases of resolution of inflammation. In this light, the resolution of inflammation is nowadays considered as an active process, instead of a passive process. In critical illness, SPMs regulate the excessive posttrauma inflammatory response, protecting organs from damage.

Conclusion

This review focuses on the role of omega-3 PUFAs as pharma nutrition agents in acute inflammatory conditions, highlighting their effects as anti-inflammatory or proresolving agents.

References

Molfino A1, Amabile MI1,2, Monti M2, Muscaritoli M1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Critical Illness: Anti-Inflammatory, Proresolving, or Both? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:5987082. doi: 10.1155/2017/5987082. Epub Jun 14 2017.

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