Listed in Issue 252


KOYAMA and COLLEAGUES, 1. Department of Food and Human Health Science, Osaka City University, Graduate School of Human Life Science examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency.


A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake.


The authors therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d.


Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C.


Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.


Koyama T1, Yoshita K, Sakurai M, Miura K, Naruse Y, Okuda N, Okayama A, Stamler J, Ueshima H, Nakagawa H. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).; 62(2):101-7. 2016. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.62.101.

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