Research: IKEWUCHI and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 242

Abstract

IKEWUCHI and COLLEAGUES, (1)Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural and  Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria ecoli240733@yahoo.com studied the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (king tuber mushroom) in the management of diabetes and hypertension.

Background

The sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (king tuber mushroom) are used in Southern Nigeria for the management of diabetes and hypertension, yet there is scarcity of information in the literature regarding the evaluation of the biochemical basis of its antihypertensive property, as well as the biochemical impact of its administration to the hypertensive. Thus, in this study, the ability of an aqueous extract of the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium to moderate biochemical and haematological indices was investigated in normal and sub-chronic salt-loaded rats.

Methodology

The normal and treatment control groups received a diet consisting 100% of the commercial feed, while the test control, reference and test treatment groups received an 8% salt-loaded diet. The extract was orally administered daily at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the moduretics was administered at 1 mg/kg. The normal and test control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route.

Results

On gas chromatographic analysis of the crude aqueous extract, 29 known flavonoids (mainly 47.71% kaempferol and 37.36% quercetin), four saponins (mainly 72.93% avenacin B1 and 26.80% avenacin A1), six hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly 57.57% p-coumaric and 42.10% caffeic acid), ten carotenoids (mainly 58.44% carotene and 28.16% lycopene) and seven phytosterols (mainly 98.16% sitosterol) were detected. Also detected were nine benzoic acid derivatives (mainly 44.19% ferulic acid and 25.92% rosmarinic acid), six lignans (mainly 70.88% galgravin and 22.69% retusin), three allicins (mainly 71.92% diallyl thiosulphinate and 23.68% methyl allyl thiosulphinate), seven glycosides (mainly 84.86% arbutin and 12.01% ouabain), 31 alkaloids (mainly 48.82% lupanine, 32.26% augustamine) and 24 terpenes (mainly 60.66% limonene and 6.52% geranyl acetate). Compared to test control, the treatment significantly, dose-dependently lowered (P < 0.05) the mean cell volume, atherogenic indices (cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma), plasma alanine and aspartate transaminase activities, mean cell haemoglobin, sodium, bicarbonate, urea, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total-, non-high density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and neutrophils, monocytes and platelets counts of the treated animals. However, it significantly, dose-dependently increased (P < 0.05) the haemoglobin concentration, mean cell haemoglobin, red cells and lymphocytes counts, plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, calcium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, albumin and total protein concentrations of the treated animals.

Conclusion

All these results support the use of the plant in traditional health care, for the management of hypertension, and highlight the cardio-protective potential of the sclerotia, whilst suggesting that its antihypertensive activity may be mediated through alteration of plasma levels of sodium and potassium, or increases in muscle tone brought about by changes in plasma calcium levels.

References

Ikewuchi JC(1), Ikewuchi CC, Ifeanacho MO, Igboh NM, Ijeh II. Moderation of hematological and plasma biochemical indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats by aqueous extract of the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr) Sing's: implications for the reduction of cardiovascular risk.  J Ethnopharmacol. 150(2):466-76. Nov 25 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.002. Epub Sep 18 2013.

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