Research: BONDI and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 246

Abstract

BONDI and COLLEAGUES,  (1)Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania studied in a rat model, how dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be involved in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders in adolescents.

Background

Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioural health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition - in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)-has increasingly been implicated in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which typically occurs during adolescence to early adulthood. Thus, adolescence might be the critical age range for the negative impact of diet as an environmental insult.

Methodology

A rat model involving consecutive generations of n-3 PUFA deficiency was developed on the basis of the assumption that dietary trends toward decreased consumption of these fats began 4-5 decades ago when the parents of current adolescents were born. Behavioural performance in a wide range of tasks as well as markers of dopamine-related neurotransmission was compared in adolescents and adults fed n-3 PUFA adequate and deficient diets.

Results

In adolescents, dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency across consecutive generations produced a modality-selective and task-dependent impairment in cognitive and motivated behaviour distinct from the deficits observed in adults. Although this dietary deficiency affected expression of dopamine-related proteins in both age groups in adolescents but not adults, there was an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was selective to the dorsal striatum.

Conclusion

These data support a nutritional contribution to optimal cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents. Furthermore, they suggest that n-3 PUFA deficiency disrupts adolescent behaviours through enhanced dorsal striatal dopamine availability.

References

Bondi CO(1), Taha AY, Tock JL, Totah NK, Cheon Y, Torres GE, Rapoport SI, Moghaddam B. Adolescent behavior and dopamine availability are uniquely sensitive to dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency. Biol Psychiatry. 75(1):38-46. Jan 1 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.06.007. Epub Jul 25 2013.  Comment in Biol Psychiatry. 75(1):4-6. Jan 1 2014.

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