Research: BEYDOUN and others,

Listed in Issue 152

Abstract

BEYDOUN and others, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, mbaydoun@jhsph.edu, have studied n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in the elderly.

Background

Fatty acids may affect the risk of cognitive decline in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma fatty acids and cognitive decline in adults aged 50-65 years at baseline, and to conduct a subgroup analysis.

Methodology

From 1987 through 1989, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study analyzed plasma fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in whites residing in Minneapolis. From 1990 through 1992 and from 1996 through 1998, 3 neuropsychological tests in the domains of delayed word recall, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency were administered. The authors selected cutoffs for statistically reliable cognitive decline in each of these domains and a measure of global cognitive change computed by principal-components analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Focusing on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, a subgroup analysis assessed differential association across potential effect modifiers implicated in oxidative stress and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease.

Results

In the 2251 study subjects, the risk of global cognitive decline increased with elevated palmitic acid in both fractions and with high arachidonic acid and low linoleic acid in cholesteryl esters. Higher n-3 fatty acids reduced the risk of decline in verbal fluency, particularly in hypertensive and dyslipidaemic subjects. No significant findings were shown for psychomotor speed or delayed word recall.

Conclusion

Promoting higher intakes of n-3 fatty acids in the diet of hypertensive and dyslipidaemic persons may have substantial benefits in reducing their risk of cognitive decline in the area of verbal fluency. However, clinical trials are needed to confirm this finding.

References

Beydoun MA, Kaufman JS, Satia JA, Rosamond W, Folsom AR. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85 (4): 1103-1111, Apr 2007.

Comment

This research suggest that n-3 fatty acids may play an effective role in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older individuals.

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