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Transcendental Meditation: The Dynamic Healing Power of Silence

by Colin Beckley(more info)

listed in meditation, originally published in issue 125 - July 2006

John strode excitedly into the meeting on the third day of his Transcendental Meditation (TM) course, bursting to tell us all his news: "I went for my usual monthly blood pressure check at the doctor's today. The doctor and nurse checked their apparatus several times – they thought it was malfunctioning – because my blood pressure has returned to normal after years on medication. They asked if I was doing anything different from normal – I said I had learned TM two days ago!"

This is a quite dramatic, but not unusual, example of the power the human body has to heal itself without intervention from outside, when given the opportunity. The only condition necessary for this to take place is a quiet mind (Samadhi in yoga) which allows the body a level of rest significantly deeper than a sleep in which the biochemical changes necessary for healing can take place.

Maharishi

'A quiet mind – that's all but impossible!' many would say. And almost all agree. Even in the Yoga tradition, the custodian of the knowledge of how to experience a quiet mind ("Yoga is the settling of the mind into silence" Yoga Sutras 1:2) Samadhi has been interpreted for many centuries as something achievable only after years of self-discipline and effort to control the excited mind through 'meditation'.

Fortunately, in 1957 a Revolutionary in the world of yoga teachers, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, emerged from the Himalayas to re-establish correct understanding of the nature of the mind, its relationship to the body, the simplicity and effortlessness of meditation and the immediate availability of silence and, therefore, healing of body and life in general.

The Infinite Healer

Everything enjoyable in life has some healing power, whichever of the senses it soothes. The degree of healing power will depend on the extent to which the mind is charmed by the experience, as this then directly affects the body and the emotions. Meditation has the greatest healing power because it leads to the greatest happiness, what Jesus referred to as "the Kingdom of Heaven within", the "Glory of God", a state of eternal bliss consciousness which Buddha called "Nirvana". These are attempts to describe the indescribable, the unbounded silence found at the source of thought, the Soul. The Yoga tradition has for thousands of years before religion maintained that 'Life is Bliss in its essential nature.' This is the most 'charming' of all experiences, beyond all sensory experience, beyond even experience itself, when experiencer and experience become one.

Yoga (or transcending) is the process of re-connecting with the source of our existence. [Physical yoga postures are an aid to this process]. Like plugging an appliance into an electric socket, we re-connect life's expressions consciously with their source (i.e. relative duality integrated into absolute singularity). We leave our weaknesses on the surface to plunge into the silent ocean of wholeness/holiness/health/healing (these words all have the same root). Author Sue Limb, writing about TM in the Guardian, described it as 'something delicious you sink into'.

This field of pure mind, described by the Yogis as Consciousness or Being, and by modern quantum physics as the 'Unified Field', is infinite in its nature and, therefore, infinite in its potentialities when it expresses itself. Infinite peace, infinite love, infinite energy, creativity, happiness and healing power.

This is the field of 'Positive Health', which yoga describes as not just an absence of disease, but a state of vibrant expression of our total potential, both mentally and physically. Being the source of life (Maharishi describes it as the "ground state of all the laws of nature") there is ultimately nothing in life that it cannot heal. Even a cancer can go into spontaneous remission (albeit rarely), which indicates that the mechanism for its healing does exist in nature. In fact, we all have cancer cells because our bodies turn over 500 billion cells each day; some of them are mutations, but our body knows how to take care of them, so we don't 'get cancer'.

Through the practice of Transcendental Meditation (Yoga) the conscious mind re-connects itself to its source in silence, so opening awareness to its own full potential, the infinite potential of nature's intelligence.

TM – How it Works

Maharishi, emerging from the Himalayas in 1957, toured India and then the world many times to put forward the then revolutionary concept that meditation is easy, effortless and works right from the first day. If silence is bliss, why would control or effort be needed to make the mind go in that direction! If we analyze every activity in our life, the underlying reason we undertake it (irrespective of the superficial reason) is the hope that it will bring us happiness. Life is a search for happiness, so the mind will go in that direction spontaneously. Like water running down a slope, it's automatic. Most meditation for centuries has been about trying to push the water up the slope!

So revolutionary has TM been that some, stuck in the old ways of thinking, have dismissed it as a meditation for beginners. Yes, it is for beginners, but it is also the most profound and powerful of approaches, because it is based on a correct understanding of the mind's relationship to the forces of nature. When yoga teachers have learned TM after years of teaching the old way, they are astonished at how the new interpretation quickly brings results that had eluded them for years.

TM is taught in four simple steps. On the first day, a one-hour session of Personal Instruction (because everyone has different requirements and questions and a different quality of nervous system; experiences vary and need careful attention and explanation from the teacher). After meditating in between, the new student returns for three group sessions of around 2 1/2 hours each over the next few days, in which we build up understanding and confidence based on the group's experiences in and out of meditation. Personal problems are not part of the discussion because we are dealing with a solution which comes regardless of what the problem is.

Positive Healing – The Research

More than 600 scientific research studies conducted at more than 200 universities and research institutions in 30 countries over the last 35 years, and published in more than 100 major scientific journals, have indicated the almost infinite scope of benefits that emerge from the experience of inner silence. The range is so vast that, for reasons of space, we will highlight references for just a few topics. Others are available by contacting the College of Meditation office (details below).

Enhanced Brain Performance

As the mind gets used to subtler, more intuitive and more powerful levels of thinking, brainwave activity becomes highly orderly and coherent. Alpha and Theta waves, which indicate a restfully alert state, appear in the central and rear areas of the cortex and then spread towards the frontal lobes, an otherwise rare phenomenon. Left and right hemispheres of the brain exhibit highly synchronized activity, and its information processing systems become finely tuned. Scientists report that this unique pattern of coherent activity co-relates with improvements in mental performance found to develop with TM, such as increased creativity and intelligence [a], problem solving and decision-making, better memory and learning ability, mental clarity, comprehension, concentration and reaction time. Mental health also is improved as we dissolve the conditioning caused by past experience. Improvements include self-confidence, self-esteem, self-assertiveness and inner control, along with reduced anxiety and depression and reduced use of alcohol, cigarettes and drugs [b]. In this last area, a statistical meta-analysis summarizing 19 studies over an 18 to 24 month period showed abstinence with TM ranging from 51% to 89% compared with 21% for conventional programmes [c].

Deep Physical Rest

Physical effects of TM are just as startling. When the mind settles, the body also settles into a deep state of rest, of reduced metabolic activity much deeper than sleep, called by scientists a 'restructuring state', the opposite of the stress ('Fight or flight') response. Breathing becomes shallower, heart rate slows and the whole cardiovascular system gains very deep rest. Levels of various chemicals that are indicators of stress, such as blood lactate and cortisol, are significantly reduced while life-supporting chemicals increase. The muscle systems in various parts of the body, such as the shoulders, relax spontaneously [d].

As a result of the profound levels of deep rest, deep-rooted stress, tension and fatigue are eliminated, the immune system is strengthened and balance restored to the nervous system. Benefits include normalization of blood pressure [e] reduced cholesterol, normalization of weight, and relief from migraines, headaches and asthma, angina, panic attacks, psoriasis, eczema, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, PMS, ME and coronary heart disease, plus enhanced vision and hearing and reversal of ageing, where subjects were found to be 12 years younger biologically after five years of meditating [f].

Because stress negatively affects every aspect of life, there is no aspect left unaffected by TM as it dissolves stress. Sports performance improves as does job performance, productivity and relationships, which has encouraged companies such as IBM, Toyota, General Motors, Sony, Toshiba and Hewlett Packard to make TM available to their staff.

Reduced Need for Health Care and Medical Expenditure

Research from the USA compared health care utilization of 2,000 TM practitioners with a control group of 600,000 of similar age, gender, occupation and health insurance terms [g]. Over a five year period the meditators had less than half the number of doctor visits and days in hospital, and showed minimal increase in utilization with age compared with normal population where it was very marked.

Hospital admission rates for medical and surgical conditions were 60-70% lower in the TM group, with reductions in all 17 disease categories studied e.g. 87% less for heart and neurological problems, 73% less for respiratory disorders and 55% less for tumours. Further research on medical expenditure using government statistics in Canada studied 677 TM practitioners for three years before and seven years after learning to meditate. Expenditure declined between five and seven per cent each year of the seven year follow-up period.

Enrichment of Life

One aspect not covered so far by scientific research is sex. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the refinement of sensory perception and enhancement of quality of attention so often reported by meditators is also responsible for greater satisfaction in this area. As one doctor said "TM adds years to your life and life to your years!"

Another GP, who has recommended TM to many of his patients says, "You can't always explain these things. A woman came to me with primary infertility: she hadn't had a period for three years, and had had a number of investigations. She learnt TM and her periods came back the next day. She came to see me two years later because, although she'd had one baby, she and her husband wanted another and she seemed to be infertile again. I asked if she was still meditating regularly – 'No, I don't have the time'. 'Well, why don't you start again?' I asked her. She did, and within two cycles she was pregnant again, this time with twins!"

References

[a] Creativity and Intelligence
1. Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation programme. Gedrag:Tijdschrift voor Psychologie. Behaviour: Journal of Psychology. 3: 1133. 67-82. 1975.
2. Travis F. Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. The Journal of Creative Behaviour. 13(3): 169-180. 1979.
3. Jedrczak A, Toomey M and Clements G. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behaviour. 19(4): 270-275. 1985.
4. Jedrczak A, Toomey M and Clements G. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and non-verbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 42: 161-164. 1986.
[b] Reduced use of Cigarettes, Alcohol and Non-Prescribed Drugs
5. Monahan R. Secondary prevention of drug dependency through the Transcendental Meditation programme in metropolitan Philadelphia. International Journal of the Addictions.12: 729-754. 1977.
6. Ljunngren G. The influence of Transcendental Meditation neuroticism, use of drugs and insomnia. Lakartidningen. 74: 4212-4214. 1977.
7. Gelderloos P, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW and Alexander CN. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation programme in preventing and treating substance misuse: a review. International Journal of the Addictions. 26(3): 293-325. 1991.
8. Taub E, Steiner SS, Weingarten E and Walton KG. Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: a long-term, randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation, EMG biofeedback and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 1-2,187-220. 1994.
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10. Brooks JS and Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counselling and Development. 64: 212-215. 1986.
11. Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC and Oates RM Jr. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation programme on stress-reduction, health, and employee development in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping. 6: 245-262. 1993.
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13. Brooks J. The application of Maharishi Ayur-Veda to mental health and substance abuse treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4. 395-411. 1994.
14. Benson H and Wallace RK. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: a study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference. (ed) CJD Zarafonetis. 369-376. Philadelphia. Lea and Febiger. 1972.
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18. Geisler M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Drogenkonsumenten. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie. 7(4): 235-255. 1978.
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22. Bleick CR. Case histories: using the Transcendental Meditation programme with alcoholics and addicts. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 243-269. 1994.
23. Ellis GA and Corum P. Removing the motivator: A holistic solution to substance abuse. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 271-296. 1994.
24. Staggers F Jr, Alexander CN and Walton KG. Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: The potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 297-331. 1994.
25. Sands D. Introducing Maharishi Ayur-Veda into clinical practice. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 335-365. 1994.
26. Glaser JL. Clinical application of Maharishi Ayur-Veda in chemical dependency disorders. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 367-394. 1994.
27. Keniston-Dubocq L. The family practitioner and the treatment of alcoholism through Maharishi Ayur-Veda: A case report. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 4 13-428. 1994.
28. Sharma HM, Dillbeck MC and Dillbeck SL. Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation programme and Maharishi Ayur-Veda to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among juveniles at risk. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 429-457. 1994.
29. O'Connell DF. Possessing the Self: Maharishi Ayur-Veda and the process of recovery from addictive diseases. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 3-4, 459-495. 1994.

[c] Meta-analysis
30 Alexander CN, Robinson P and Rainforth M. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 11: 1-2, 13-87. 1994.

[d] Physiological Changes during TM
31. Wallace RK. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science. 167: 1751-1754. 1970.
32. Wallace RK, Benson H and Wilson AF. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology. 221: 795-799. 1971.
33. Farrow JT and Hebert JR. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychosomatic Medicine. 44(2): 133-153. 1982.
34. Jevning R, Wilson AF, O'Halloran JP and Walsh RN. Forearm blood flow and metabolism during stylized and unstylized states of decreased activation. American Journal of Physiology. 245 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 14): Ri 10-RI 16. 1983.
35. Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, O'Halloran JP and Walsh RN. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism. American Journal of Physiology. 245 (Cell Physiol. 14): C457-C461. 1983.
36. Wolkove N, Kreisman H, Darragh D, Cohen C and Frank H. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on breathing and respiratory control. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology. 56(3): 607-612. 1984.
37. Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encephale. 10: 139-144. 1984.
38. Gamier D, Cazabat A, Thebault P and Gauge PH. Pulmonary ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique – applications in preventive medicine. Est-Medicine. 4(76): 867-870. 1984.
39. Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, Guich S and Walsh RN. Modulation of red cell metabolism by states of decreased activation: comparison between states. Physiology and Behaviour. 35: 679-682. 1985.
40. Wilson AF, Jevning R and Guich S. Marked reduction of forearm carbon dioxide production during states of decreased metabolism. Physiology and Behaviour. 41: 347-352. 1987.
41. Jevning R, Wallace RK and Biedebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Bio-behavioural Reviews. 16: 415-424.
42. Banquet JP and Sailhan M. EEG analysis of spontaneous and induced states of consciousness. Revue D'Electroencephalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique. 4: 445-453. 1974.
43. Banquet JP. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 35:143-151. 1973.
44. WandhoferA, Kobal G and Plattig K-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrtft fur Elektroenzephalographic und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG. 7: 99-103. 1976.
45. Hebert JR and Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in normal subjects practising the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 42: 397-405. 1977.
46. McEvoy TM, Frumkin LR and Harkins SW. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience. 10: 165-170. 1980.
47. Dillbeck MC and Bronson EC. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience. 14: 147-151. 1981.
48. Orme-Johnson DW and Haynes CT. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience. 13: 211-217. 1981.
49. Badawi K, Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson D and Rouzère A-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practise of the Transcendental Meditation programme. Psychosomatic Medicine. 46(3): 267-276. 1984.
50. Dillbeck MC and Araas-Vesely S. Participation in the Transcendental Meditation programme and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience. 29: 45-55. 1986.
51. Orme-Johnson DW and Gelderloos P. Topographic brain mapping during the TM-Sidhi programme. International Journal of Neuroscience. 38: 427-434. 1988.
52. Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson DW and Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience. 46: 77-86. 1989.
53. Goddard PH. Reduced age-related declines in P300 latency in elderly practising Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology. 26: S29. 1989.
54. Travis F and Orme-Johnson DW. EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience. 49: 203-211. 1989.
55. Travis F and Orme-Johnson DW. EEG coherence and power: investigating the mechanics of the TM-Sidhi programme. International Journal of Neuroscience. 54: 1-12. 1990.
56. Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR and Morton ME. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behaviour. American Journal of Physiology. 2350: R89-R92. 1978.
57. Jevning R, Anand R, Biedebach M and Fernando G. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behaviour. 59(1): 399-402. 1996.
58. Dillbeck MC and Orme-Johnson DW. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist. 42: 879-881. 1987.
59. O'Halloran JP, Jevning R, Wilson AF, Skowsky R, Walsh RN and Alexander C. Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology and Behaviour. 35: 591-595. 1985.
60. Jevning R, Wilson AF and Davidson JM. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behaviour. 100: 54-60. 1978.
61. Jevning R, Wilson AF and Smith WR. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia. 34: 618-619. 1978.
62. Bevan AJW. Endocrine changes in Transcendental Meditation. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 7: 75-76. 1980.
63. Bevan AJW, Young PM, Wellby ML, Nenadovic P and Dickins JA. Endocrine changes in relaxation procedures. Proceedings of the Endocrine Society of Australia. 19: 59. 1976.
64. Kemmerling T. Wirkung der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Muskeltonus. Psychopathometrie. 4: 437-438. 1978.
65. Bujatti M and Riederer P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission. 39: 257-267. 1976.
66. Jevning R, Pirkle HC and Wilson AF. Behavioural alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration. Physiology and Behaviour. 19: 611-614. 1977.
67. Jevning R, Wilson AF and Vanderlaan EF. Plasma prolactin and growth hormone during meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine. 40(4): 329-333. 1978.
68. Lang R, Dehof K, Meurer KA and Kaufmann W. Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission. 4: 117-135. 1979.
69. Walton KG, Francis D, Lerom M and Tourenne C. Behaviourally-induced alterations in urinary 5-hydroxyindoles. Transactions of the American Society for Neurochemistry. 14: 199. 1983.
70. Jevning R, Wells L, Wilson AF and Guich S. Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, and insulin during acute hypometabolic state in man. Physiology and Behaviour. 40: 603-606. 1987.
71. McCuaig LW. Salivary electrolytes, proteins and pH during Transcendental Meditation. Experientia. 30(9): 988-989. 1974.
72. Werner OR, Wallace RK, Charles B, Janssen G, Stryker T and Chalmers RA. Long-term endocrinologic changes in subjects practising the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programme. Psychosomatic Medicine. Jan-Feb; 480-2: 59-66. 1986.

[e] Blood Pressure
73. Benson H and Wallace RK. Decreased blood pressure in hypertensive subjects who practised meditation. Circulation. 45. Supplement II: 516. 1972.
74. Blackwell B. Hanenson IB, Bloomfield SS, Magenheim HG, Nidich SI and Gartside P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: a controlled pilot experiment. Psychosomatic Medicine. 37(1): 86. 1975.
75. Cooper M and Avgen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association. 95: 1-2. 1978.
76. Wallace RK. Silver J, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC and Wagoner DE. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programme: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine. 45W: 41-46. 1983.
77. Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Davies JL, Chandler HM and Newman RI. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57, 6: 950-964. 1989.
78. Schneider RH, Alexander CN and Wallace RK. In search of an optimal behavioural treatment for hypertension: A review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. From Johnson EH, Gentry WD and Julius S (eds). Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension. 291-312. Washington DC. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. 1992.
79. Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S and King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension. 26: 820-827. 1995.
80. Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton KG and Egon B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans II Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension. 28: 228-237. 1996.
81. Henon RE, Schneider RH, Mandarino GV, Alexander CN and Walton KG. Cost-effective hypertension management: comparison of drug therapies with an alternative programme. American Journal of Managed Care. 2: 427-437.

[f] Reversal of Ageing
82. WaIlare RK, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E and Harrington B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programme on the ageing process. International Journal of Neuroscience. 16: 53-58. 1982.
83. Mills V1 and Farro JT. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experiential pain. Psychosomatic Medicine. (43)21: 15-164. 1981.
84. Glaser JL et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi Programmes. Journal of Behavioural Medicine. 15: 4. 327-341. 1992.
85. Smith D, Dillbeck MC and Sharma HM. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Transcendental Meditation. Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice. 4 (2): 35-37. 1997.

[g] Reduced Need for Health Care and Medical Expenditure
86. Orme-Johnson DW. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation programme. Psychosomatic Medicine. 49: 493-507. 1987.
87. Herron RE, Hillis SL, Mandarino JV, Orme-Johnson DW and Walton KG. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation programme on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion. 10: 208-2 16. 1996.

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About Colin Beckley

Colin Beckley was trained as a teacher of Transcendental Meditation by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and qualified in 1990. He is now Director of the College of Meditation and the Meditation Trust and teaches TM in London and across the South of England and Wales. A small but increasing group of his colleagues now teach in other parts of the country. For a free information pack or to contact Colin call Tel: 01843 841010; tm.com@btinternet.com; www.tm-meditation.co.uk

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