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Letters to the Editor Issue 290

by Letters(more info)

listed in letters to the editor, originally published in issue 290 - November 2023

More than a Decade of Dedication to Chemistry Honoured

A Sunderland scientist has been recognised for his service with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Having joined the RSC during his freshers’ week back in 1992 at the University of Sheffield as a chemistry undergraduate, Associate Professor Mark Gray has never looked back, and has since held a variety of roles with the society to reach its highest level of membership – a Fellow (FRSC). Other holders of the role included the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Philip. Mark’s exceptional achievements in advancing chemical sciences alongside his dedication to the various RSC member networks for the last 15 years has now been honoured with the RSC Long Service Award.


Associate  Professor Mark Gray

Associate Professor Mark Gray


The Associate Professor in Medicinal Chemistry, at the University of Sunderland, says:

“It’s a huge honour to achieve this award and to be recognised by your peers. I hope that the work I’ve been involved with has helped inspire at least one young person to follow science as their career path.”

Professor Michael Young, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), at the University of Sunderland, said:

“We’re delighted to congratulate Mark for this very well-deserved award, which acknowledges his many years of service to the RSC, reflective of his dedication to the advancement of chemistry as a discipline.”

Having graduated in 1995, Mark then headed to the US to complete a PhD at the University of Massachusetts and then onto a Post Doctoral Research role at the University of Texas.

He returned to the UK and in 2005 took up a lecturers’ role at Sunderland. Since that time he has been teaching organic chemistry, thermodynamics, physical organic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, rational drug design, and molecular modelling. His research interests include synthetic chemistry, physical organic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, rational drug design, and molecular modelling. Mark has been active on RSC committee roles since 2008. He currently sits on the Member Networks Committee, is Chair and an Academic Representative of the North-East Regional Steering Group. He has previously held roles as Chair, Vice Chair, Secretary and Committee Member of the Newcastle & North-East Coast Local Section between 2010 and 2019.

RSC activities that stand out for Mark, over the years, he says, are initiating the RSC sponsored seminar series at Sunderland and an annual astrochemistry seminar in conjunction with the Sunderland Astronomical Society. Both events were put on hold due to COVID-19, but Mark hopes to start these back up again soon.  He explains:

“The astrochemistry sessions were particularly nice as they had an astrochemistry seminar followed by an observing session at the Washington Wetlands Trust. Between the chemistry, the astronomy, and the wildlife and scenery at the wetlands there was enough going on to appeal to a wide audience.

“One other activity that proved to be particularly popular was a visit to the poison garden at Alnwick Castle. We did a tour of the gardens and had a talk by John Emsley on the chemistry of poisons.”

In addition to his RSC roles, through the Society Mark is also hold the title of Chartered Chemist (CChem) and Chartered Scientist (CSci).

About the University of Sunderland

The University of Sunderland is a life-changing institution. It welcomes all with talent into higher education and supports students in reaching their potential through its strategic ambitions to be student-focused, professions-facing and society-shaping.

The University has around 27,500 students based at campuses in Sunderland, London and Hong Kong, as well as through global learning partnerships in 15 countries and online learning. The University is proud of its positive contribution to economic and social change. Its graduates leave equipped with the knowledge, skills, confidence and connections to make a positive difference in the wider world. Find out how the University of Sunderland can change lives at Tel: 019 515 3219

Further Information

Find a University of Sunderland expert 

Please contact: Helen Franks  Tel: 07786807586;



Recent Studies Have Shown that Stress is Correlated with Cardiovascular Disease.

by Carlos Monteiro

However, these studies were not sufficiently publicized by the medical journals and media. So, the general public was not aware of this important advance in medicine.

Below follows some of these studies:

  1. “Relation between resting amygdalar activity and cardiovascular events: a longitudinal and cohort study”. Lancet 2017: 382 832-45. Published at
  2. “Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease”. Nature Reviews Cardiology 15, 215–229. 2018. Published at
  3. “Chronic Stress-Related Neural Activity Associates With Subclinical Cardiovascular. Disease in a Community-Based Cohort: Data From the Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment. Frontiers. Cardiovascular Medicine, March 10, 2021.
    Published at
  4. Psychological Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease: A Case-Control
    Study. Cureus, Published in 10/01/2020 at
  5. Stress related disorders and risk of cardiovascular disease: population based, sibling controlled cohort study, BMJ ;365:l1255. 2019. at
  6. Disentangling the Links Between Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease.
    Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2020;13:e010931 at
  7. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease and Death in a Population Based Cohort From 21 Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries. JAMA Netw Open ;4(12):e2138920. 1 Dec  at
  8. Cardiovascular Disease Hospitalizations in Louisiana Parishes’ Elderly before, during and after Hurricane Katrina. Int J Environ Res Public Health,2019 at

My interest about stress and diseases led to search studies from researchers of the past and their discoveries. So, realizing the importance of stress and resultant lactic acidosis as a possible causal role for different diseases. They involved cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction and hypertension. In our studies was also researched other illnesses like Cancer, Stroke, Alzheimer’s, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Diabetes Mellitus.

Our studies were published in the following places:

  1. Article "Stress as Cause of Heart Attacks - The Myogenic Theory". Published in Positive Health Online, issue 222 - May 2015 at
  2. Article “Acidity Theory of Atherosclerosis: History, Pathophysiology, Therapeutics andRisk Factors - A Mini Review”, Published in Positive Health Online, Issue  226 – November 2015 at  
  3. E-book “Autonomic Dysfunction + Lactic Acidosis = Multiple Diseases”, July 2021 at (PDF - Free of Charge)
  4. Article "Looking for the Cause and Cure of Diseases -- Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Relationship of Stress to Disease” Published in Contentment Magazine: Spring 2021 at



Meningitis, Measles and Covid Could Mean a Perilous Start to School and Uni

 A leading testing expert fears a perfect storm of infections in September as students start at schools and colleges. School closures during Covid lockdowns mean 1-in-8 students starting university this year remains unprotected against meningitis. Concern is growing early symptoms may be confused with freshers’ flu.

It's an exciting but worrying time when children and young adults start at a new school or university. However, as well as the traditional stresses of getting to know new campuses and people, a leading health testing expert says students must learn the difference between ‘freshers’ flu’ symptoms and something more serious this September.

Leading testing expert, Dr Avinash Hari Narayanan MBChB, Clinical Lead at London Medical Laboratory, says: “Schools go back next week and many universities’ freshers’ weeks start on 18 September. Due to the impact of Covid lockdowns on school inoculation schedules, health professionals are increasingly concerned about the new academic year.

“The MenACWY vaccine usually protects against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria – A, C, W and Y – that cause meningitis and bloodstream infections (septicaemia). It’s normally offered to all pupils aged 13 to 15 years old alongside the “teenage booster” jab, which is given to increase protection against tetanus, diphtheria and polio.

“However, many students who were aged around 15 in 2020 may have missed these key jabs because of Covid school closures. This age group is now starting university. The latest MenACWY coverage data shows the vaccination rate has now fallen to 79.6%.

“There is also concern some students may have missed their MMR vaccine, protecting against measles, mumps, and rubella, and their HPV vaccine, protecting against human papilloma virus-related cancers.

“Potentially, this is a health crisis waiting to happen. Many first-year students starting college or university this September are not up-to-date with all their inoculations. Therefore, they are at increased risk of serious diseases as they mix with large numbers of other students from around the country and overseas.

“It's particularly concerning, as cases of so-called ‘freshers’ flu’ (usually caused by assorted bugs that spread quickly through the student population in the first weeks of term) can be confused with symptoms of meningitis in its early stages. Like freshers’ flu, meningitis is initially difficult to distinguish from a bad hangover or common, milder illnesses. This can also be the case with the early stages of measles or mumps.

“For students and parents concerned about the potential increase in meningitis cases, it’s important to note that anyone born on or after 1 September 1996 who was eligible but missed their teenage MenACWY vaccine can still have the jab up to their 25th birthday.

“However, it’s also important to remember that MenACWY does not protect against all meningitis strains, for example MenB, which is often common among students. So it’s vitally important to know the signs and symptoms of meningitis even if you have received the MenACWY jab.

“Meningitis and septicaemia can develop suddenly. Symptoms include:

  • A blotchy rash that doesn’t fade when a glass is rolled over it
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Aching muscles and joints
  • A stiff neck
  • Sensitivity and intolerance to light
  • The MenW strain can also cause vomiting and diarrhoea in teenagers and young adults

“With the exception of the rash, the concern is that all of these symptoms may be mistaken initially for freshers’ flu and/or the weeklong hangover that is often considered a rite of passage for new students. Urgent antibiotic treatment and hospitalisation is critical as soon as meningitis is diagnosed.

“Meanwhile, it's not only university that can act like a Petri dish, creating the conditions in which bacteria and viruses can mushroom – so too can school. Last year, Covid cases soared by 12.7% between 11-17 September as students returned to the classroom, caught the virus and spread it to their families. As a result, between 13-19 September 2022 there was a sudden 16.9% boom in Covid hospitalisations. That’s doubly concerning this year as the axing of Covid boosters for 50-64 year olds this autumn means more family members will have less antibodies than last year.

“For anyone concerned about their overall health as they start university or as their kids return to school, a general health test might provide reassurance that they are in overall good health to help fight the symptoms of new viruses.

“London Medical Laboratory’s General Health Profile blood test provides people with a comprehensive check-up of their general health, including diabetes (HbA1c), gout, liver & kidney function, bone health, iron levels and a full cholesterol profile. It can be taken at home through the post, or at one of the many drop-in clinics that offer these tests across London and nationwide in over 95 selected pharmacies and health stores.” For full details, see:

Further Information

London Medical Laboratory’s Clinical Lead, Dr Avinash Hari Narayanan, is available to supply exclusive written comment or for interview. To contact Dr Hari Narayanan, or for more information, please email London Medical Laboratory’s Head of Public Relations, David Jinks M.I.L.T., at



The Physiological Society Welcomes the Announcement of the UK’s Association with Horizon Europe

The Physiological Society welcomes the UK and European Union’s joint statement that the UK will associate with Horizon Europe as of 1 January 2024.  Under the agreed terms of the deal, UK researchers will, for the first time in three years, be able to bid to take part in projects under the €95 billion (£82 billion) scheme. Horizon Europe helps foster global networks of researchers and innovators aimed at tackling the most complex and interdisciplinary global research challenges in areas such as climate, health, energy, mobility, digital, industry and space and more. 

The UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement included provisions for the UK to participate in Horizon Europe, but talks to ‘associate’ with the scheme stalled over wider discussions about post-Brexit trade rules in Northern Ireland.

Under the new agreement, the UK has negotiated a series of additional ‘financial protections’. The first is that the UK will not fund the period between the UK formally leaving the European Union and its association status beginning in January of next year. The UK has also negotiated a ‘rebate’ system should UK scientists receive significantly less money than the UK puts into the programme. The EU will now work to formally ratify the UK’s association status and promote its return to the Horizon programme to UK researchers, including physiologists, to ensure uptake of participation. 

Commenting on the announcement, Dariel Burdass, Chief Executive of The Physiological Society said:

“Today's announcement is a really important milestone for UK, European and global science. This is very welcome news and scientists in both the UK and EU will be breathing a sigh of relief now the UK is once again part of the world’s largest research programme. 

“The Physiological Society has been steadfast in making the case that UK-based researchers should be able to fully participate in the Horizon Europe programme. Collaboration is the lifeblood of science, and we know from our members the damage that has been caused by the uncertainty around the UK’s association to Horizon Europe. 

"Now the deal has concluded, it unlocks huge potential for scientists in the UK and EU to build new, exciting partnerships to drive science forward." 

The Physiological Society has been at the forefront of science for 150 years and is Europe’s largest network of physiologists. It supports physiologists by organising world-class conferences and offering grants for research and also publishes the latest developments in the field in its three leading scientific journals, The Journal of Physiology, Experimental Physiology and Physiological Reports.

Further Information and Contact

Tom Addison, Policy and Public Affairs Manager 

The Physiological Society



Persistent Spike Protein Syndrome : Rapid Resolution with Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation

Report by Fabrice Leu ND and Thomas E Levy MD JD

Originally Published at

This article will outline what appears to be a highly successful, readily accessible, and inexpensive therapy for dealing with the Persistent Spike Protein Syndrome, commonly referred to as chronic COVID or "long-haul" COVID, as applied and reported by Dr Fabrice Leu of Switzerland. Long-term follow-up on the treated patients remains to be accumulated to determine whether the positive clinical and laboratory outcomes are temporary or permanent. Regardless, the therapy can be applied in minutes in the office setting, and even if there is a periodic resurgence/recurrence of spike protein in any of the patients it can be repeatedly addressed as needed. This therapy can offer a great deal of relief to millions of people continuing to suffer with the symptoms of persistent spike protein after their acute COVID infections and/or following one or more vaccinations. Whether the spike protein can ever be completely eradicated (versus just chronically suppressed) remains an issue of great concern to clinicians and their patients.

Research is now showing that the spike protein can become effectively "embedded" into the genome. [1,2] In the blood of many vaccinated persons the spike protein has already been documented to persist as long as six months. [3]

Unfortunately, the disappearance of the spike protein from the circulation does not necessarily mean that it is completely gone from the body.

UV Irradiation - A Brief History

Niels Finsen was a Danish physician who received the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering work in the treatment of skin diseases with various applications of light (phototherapy). After initially studying the effects of sunlight on insects and animals, he turned his attention to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light. A colleague of his had a skin condition known as lupus vulgaris (due to the same bacterium causing pulmonary tuberculosis) that was not responding to any of the traditional treatments of that time. Finsen found that UV irradiation of the affected skin areas quickly resulted in significant healing. While the discovery of antibiotic therapy quickly pushed the benefits of UV irradiation into the background, the work of Finsen largely began the research into the role that UV irradiation could play in sterilization techniques. The ability of UV light to inactivate or kill pathogens is now well-established, including for air disinfection. [4-7] The COVID pathogen has also been proven to be easily inactivated by UV irradiation. [8]

Clinically, UV irradiation of the blood has already been proven to rapidly resolve various infectious diseases. In a series of 47 patients with early to moderately advanced spinal type polio infections, UV blood irradiation was shown to cure all of them, and as a monotherapy.

Many different infections and medical conditions have been similarly been cured or greatly improved with this therapy, including acute viral hepatitis and advanced sepsis. [9,10]

D-Dimer and Persistent Spike Protein

The persistent spike protein seen in chronic COVID infection and/or following COVID vaccinations is reliably connected to elevated D-Dimer levels in the blood. D-Dimer is a product resulting from the ongoing breakdown of blood clots formed in the body. As such, elevated D-Dimer levels indicate that excess blood clotting is taking place, which is resulting in the excess presence of the clot breakdown products. [11] While a normal D-Dimer level does not completely rule out the presence of spike protein in a COVID patient or a vaccinated patient, its new presence is a clear indicator that there is a clot-promoting spike protein presence in the body, particularly in the circulating blood. Autopsy reports have shown that 80 to 100% of COVID patients have micro thrombi (small blood clots) throughout their bodies. [12] In COVID patients, D-Dimer levels are nearly always elevated, and the highest levels are predictive of the poorest outcomes. [13,14] One prospective study demonstrated D-Dimer elevations in all of 137 consecutive COVID patients, and the severity of the D-Dimer elevations correlated directly with the clinical severity of the infection. [15] Once the acute COVID clinical course has resolved, continued spike protein presence has been documented to oftentimes persist for months. [16]

Spike protein has been shown to directly result in increased blood clot formation throughout the body. [17,18] In fact, good control and/or eradication of persistent spike protein cannot be claimed as long as D-Dimer levels remain elevated.

Since the persistence of an elevated D-Dimer indicates an abnormal amount of ongoing blood clot formation and dissolution, it is directly correlated with an increased mortality. This mortality increase is seen whether the elevated D-Dimer is due to a thrombosis-inducing medical condition or to persistent spike protein from COVID or vaccination. [19-21] Even though blood testing for spike protein is not yet readily available, the D-Dimer level is readily available, and it can be relied upon to effectively track the presence and degree of spike protein in the blood. Because of this, bringing an elevated D-Dimer level back into the normal range is strong evidence that the circulating spike protein has been eliminated or at least significantly suppressed. An analysis of persistent spike protein pathology and its treatment with bio-oxidative therapies has previously been published. [22]

Continuing research on COVID, vaccination status, and the Persistent Spike Protein Syndrome is now demonstrating that many, possibly a majority, of the sickest chronic COVID patients also received vaccinations. This should not be surprising, since the culprit agent in those ill individuals is the spike protein, and the purported mechanism of the shot is to disseminate mRNA-generated spike protein throughout the body in order to stimulate an immune response to the pathogen containing the spike protein.

Regardless of any generated immune response, the spike protein has its own well-documented toxicity, and continued spike protein production long after such an initial response to an mRNA vaccine is resulting in a wide range of chronic diseases and medical conditions. Spike protein toxicity is well-documented now in both human and animal studies.

Even fragments of the spike protein have been shown to be toxic and highly pathogenic. [23-25]

Of note, the toxicity and pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV coronavirus-related spike protein were documented long before the COVID pandemic. [26,27] In an animal study, a vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-related spike protein not only was unable to protect against the targeted pathogen, it also resulted in a strong inflammatory response with necrosis seen in the liver. In contrast, animals just exposed to the pathogen but remaining unvaccinated showed no clinical symptoms, further bringing into question the actual physiological role being played by the vaccine. [28]

Any shots before or after a bout of COVID promote higher spike protein levels, and those elevations are often sustained. Furthermore, the high spike protein levels often seen in post-vaccination individuals can enter an indefinite period of continued spike protein production in the cells that assimilated the mRNA from the injection. [29,30] One study showed that fully 12% of 720 subjects receiving a spike protein-producing vaccine promptly elevated their D-Dimer levels. [31] Inducing an abnormal clotting status in any patient at any time is never desirable and should not be part of any "normal" vaccination response.

UV Blood Irradiation and COVID-Related Elevated D-Dimer Levels

Patients with the symptoms of chronic COVID and having elevated D-Dimer levels were treated with a protocol of UV blood irradiation. These chronic COVID patients, clinically felt to have the persistent presence of the spike protein in their blood and elsewhere, had any of the multiple symptoms commonly reported now, including cognitive and mental impairment, pain in the chest, joints, and muscles, loss or alteration of smell and taste, cough, headache, and various gastrointestinal problems. [32]

A Kastner device for UV blood irradiation was utilized for the treatment sessions. [33] This machine provides an exposure to a wavelength of 254 nm of UV-C light. Such a wavelength is especially well-absorbed by foreign proteins, which results in their denaturation (breakdown). [34,35] UV-C also disrupts both RNA and DNA, which quickly kills or inactivates the targeted pathogens. Bacteria and viruses are selectively targeted by UV irradiation, as they absorb roughly 5 times more photonic energy than the circulating red and white blood cells.

UV-C has also been documented to cause a breakdown and unfolding of the spike protein structure limiting its ability to bind the ACE2 receptor, which is the mechanism that triggers clot formation along with tissue and organ damage throughout the body. [36,37]

Patients with a D-Dimer level in excess of 500 ng/cc (or 0.5 mg/L) were included in the treatment group. The goal, in addition to symptom relief, was to bring the D-Dimer levels to less than 500, the level considered to be normal. However, it should be noted that having a D-Dimer level between 200 and 300 is more desirable than "just below" 500. A laboratory reference range, or "normal" range is based on statistical considerations that assume normalcy in most of the tested patients. Such a range fails miserably when a substantial percentage of the tested population is not normal.

UV-C irradiation, one pass: 50 cc of venous blood along with 5 cc of sodium citrate in a 60 cc syringe was given one passage through the UV-C device. After passing through the UV irradiation, the blood was returned by vein to the patient at a rate of approximately 1 cc every 3 seconds. Of note, the clear crystal tube often used for blood irradiation is not essential for effective irradiation. It was replaced with a 75 cm ASID line, a much more economic accessory. For a video demonstration of this technique:

UV-C irradiation, multi-pass, with oxygen added: Some of the patients also received hematogenic oxygen therapy (HOT) before the UV-C irradiation treatment of the blood. This utilizes one 60 cc syringe filled with oxygen gas connected to one end of the ASID line inside the UV-C device. The other end is connected to another 60 cc syringe with 50 cc of venous blood and 5 cc of sodium citrate. Once both ends of the ASID line are connected to their respective syringes, the contents of the oxygen syringe and the blood syringe are pushed back-and-forth in a "ping-pong" fashion through the irradiated ASID line for roughly 150 seconds. Significant foaming will be noted. The remaining non-foamed blood is then administered back to the patient intravenously. For a video demonstration of this technique: Another video more clearly demonstrates the "ping-pong" aspect of this technique:

Clinical and Laboratory Results

Although not conducted as a sizeable and tightly controlled study, the results that were seen were quite striking and indicate that substantial relief could be provided for many people. A total of 10 patients were treated with either one pass of UV-C irradiation by itself or in a multi-pass fashion as the blood specimen was passed back-and-forth through the irradiated ASID line, along with the addition of the 60 cc of oxygen gas in that closed system before being returned to the patient.

2 patients were treated with just the one pass UV-C irradiation. One was 74-years-old who received 4 UV-C one pass treatments over a 4-month period. The D-Dimer improved but did not normalize, going from 863 to 741.

The other patient was a 20-year-old male serving in the Swiss military. He had never been vaccinated. The military required COVID testing routinely every few weeks. He had developed significant pressure in his head for one to two weeks before being seen. As was required on a regular basis in the military, he had a COVID test which came back positive. He received a one pass UV-C treatment, and this was repeated 2 weeks later. His head discomfort resolved, and his D-Dimer went from slightly elevated at 519 to normal at 382. This patient alone not only demonstrates the effectiveness of UV-C blood irradiation, it also strongly implies that the circulating spike protein might be completely eliminated quite easily when such a therapy is given early-on.

8 patients were treated with the UV-C multi-pass + HOT therapy: 3 patients, ages ranging from 65 to 89 were treated. One (65-years-old) had an initial D-Dimer of 2,976. After two treatments separated by a 6-week period the D-Dimer level had dropped to 591. A 58-year-old who presented with a D-Dimer of 1,121 was given two treatments over a 1-week period. The D-Dimer level plummeted to 310. The 89-year-old had a very impressive result, with an initial D-Dimer of 1,996 dropping to 357 with 2 treatments given over a 6-week period.

5 more patients, ages ranging from 40 to 73, presented with symptoms of chronic COVID. 4 of 5 were treated with a single UV-C multi-pass + HOT therapy. No follow-up treatments were given, as these individuals felt well and did not feel the need to return for more treatment or follow-up testing. As a result no follow-up D-Dimer test could be done. The 40-year-old ended up receiving 2 treatments, and did not return after that. Initial D-Dimer levels ranged from 571 to 1,002. While yet to be precisely defined, such positive clinical responses appear to closely correlate with a declining/normalizing D-Dimer level.

Exceptional Safety

Ultraviolet blood irradiation has an impressive track record of safety over the many years of its application as a therapy. However, it is essential that the therapy be applied as recommended and not be "overdosed" as can occur with virtually any therapeutic agent or medicine. UV irradiation at the wavelength described in this article has been shown to be preferentially absorbed into the nucleic acid of the pathogens that are present while leaving the blood proteins unharmed. Because of this safety profile and pathogen-killing effectiveness, such UV irradiation is commonly used for reducing the infectivity of pathogens in plasma and other blood components harvested for subsequent administration in both animals and humans. [38,39]

Whole blood UV irradiation, along with the administration of riboflavin, has been shown to drastically reduce Plasmodium falciparum (malaria pathogen) infectivity without inducing significant hemolysis. [40] Another study also showed that UV irradiation could dramatically reduce pathogen presence without causing any significant damage to the red blood cells. [41] Even though UV blood irradiation increases the oxidative stress inside pathogens sufficiently to kill or inactivate them, it has also been shown that its effect on albumin, the main blood protein, is to increase its antioxidant capacity. [42]

Some of the concern as to the potential toxicity of UV irradiation comes from looking at the effects of UV irradiation directly on the skin rather than the blood irradiation techniques discussed in this article. Just as anyone with fair skin can get sunburned when out in the sun too long, different wavelengths of UV irradiation can cause skin damage. [43] Total amount and rate of application are always critical factors in determining how likely an agent can cause damage. Fire always burns and destroys, but the same amount of thermal energy applied slowly can nurture and heal. Proper application of the same UV irradiation known to damage the skin helps to resolve multiple dermatologic conditions. [44]

In over 1,000 patients that have been treated at the Riordan Clinic in Wichita, KS with UV blood irradiation, NO significant negative side effects were ever seen. [45]

The Riordan Clinic protocol withdraws from 60 to 300 cc of blood, adds it to a several-fold larger volume of normal saline, and ozonates it outside of the body. This blood solution is then infused over 30 to 90 minutes through a line that passes through the UV irradiation machine before being returned to the patient. An intravenous infusion of vitamin C is then administered, typically in a dose of 50 grams. Of note, investigators in Russia have reported a very infrequent occurrence of minor and transient side effects in the administration of UV blood irradiation for a wide range of medical conditions. [46] Also, there is a substantial variation among irradiation device wavelengths and the treatment protocols being utilized around the world. Nevertheless, it appears that regardless of wavelength and protocol, UV blood irradiation is an exceptionally safe and effective procedure.

Beyond its ability to kill pathogens and neutralize toxins, UV blood irradiation has been documented to result in many different positive biochemical, clinical, and metabolic changes in the treated patients. These changes have been examined in depth in review articles. [9,47]


The application of UV irradiation has been known to be a powerful anti-pathogen therapy for well over a century. It has been proven to be highly effective for external disinfection as well as for internal infection remediation. It remains incredibly underutilized around the world, likely due to lack of awareness along with the continuous pressure to use only costly pharmacological agents for just about everything.

Because of the now worldwide dissemination of the spike protein, D-Dimer testing needs to be done in the initial evaluation of any patient presenting with any symptom or condition.

A persistent spike protein presence can effectively masquerade as, or worsen, literally any medical condition. A positive D-Dimer test indicates the need for urgent intervention, as delay will give any circulating spike protein an increased chance of becoming embedded inside the cells and tissues, with a persistent presence that can last for the life of the patient. Spike protein is most susceptible to destruction and elimination while in the blood.

A series of UV irradiation treatments should produce even better results in patients with an elevated D-Dimer due to a persistent presence of circulating spike protein.

Hopefully, the results reported in this pilot study will help to stimulate an interest in re-documenting through new clinical research the uniqueness of UV blood irradiation as a highly effective bio-oxidative therapy for not only infections, including COVID, but nearly all other medical conditions.

The remarkable range of non-infectious medical conditions that has also been very effectively treated with UV blood irradiation, and that has already been reported in the early scientific literature before the appearance of antibiotic therapy, is covered well in several review articles. [9,10,48]


The COVID-related spike protein is currently a major cause for much of the morbidity and mortality around the world today. It can be present when an acute COVID infection does not completely resolve but instead evolves into chronicity. Vaccines, as they are designed to introduce more spike protein into the body, make it even harder to obliterate or even minimize the long-term spike protein content in the blood. It is also increasingly clear that many people can acquire a significant spike protein exposure through shedding, or casual contact with someone else harbouring the spike protein. This literally puts everyone at some risk, and D-Dimer simply must become a test as routine as glucose, cholesterol, or haemoglobin.

While a wide array of therapies and supplements have been proposed to deal with the Persistent Spike Protein Syndrome, many do not result in a high degree of clinical resolution. Bio-oxidative therapies, including vitamin C, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet light, ozone, and hyperbaric oxygen are all very valuable in treating such patients.

This paper reports on a limited experience with UV blood irradiation therapies for the treatment of symptomatic patients with elevated D-Dimer levels. In the context of the pandemic, it appears that the unique thrombogenic nature of the spike protein reliably results in elevations of these levels. No matter how minimal a symptom might seem, an elevated D-Dimer mandates immediate and vigorous therapy. With its documented ability to denature and resolve spike protein, along with its low cost, ease of administration, and remarkable safety, UV irradiation should always be a part of the early treatment in patients with elevated D-Dimer levels when it is available.

About the Authors

Dr Fabrice Leu is a Naturopathic Practitioner with Advanced Federal Diploma of Higher Education. He is also a Trainer with Federal Diploma of Higher Education. He currently serves as President of the ASNFD, the Swiss Association of Naturopaths with Federal Diploma. See He has had a practice of Naturopathic Medicine for 30 years now. His practice frequently applies bio-oxidative therapies like ultraviolet blood irradiation, ozone autohemotherapy, and intravenous vitamin C. He can be reached at:

Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD is board certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases. He is also a bar-certified attorney. He can be reached at A collection of all his OMNS articles can be accessed with the following link under the subheading of "Orthomolecular":  


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Albert G. B. Amoa, MB.Ch.B, Ph.D. (Ghana)
Seth Ayettey, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D. (Ghana)
Ilyès Baghli, M.D. (Algeria)
Barry Breger, M.D. (Canada)
Ian Brighthope, MBBS, FACNEM (Australia)
Gilbert Henri Crussol, D.M.D. (Spain)
Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
Ian Dettman, Ph.D. (Australia)
Susan R. Downs, M.D., M.P.H. (USA)
Ron Ehrlich, B.D.S. (Australia)
Hugo Galindo, M.D. (Colombia)
Gary S. Goldman, Ph.D. (USA)
William B. Grant, Ph.D. (USA)
Claus Hancke, MD, FACAM (Denmark)
Patrick Holford, BSc (United Kingdom)
Ron Hunninghake, M.D. (USA)
Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
Dwight Kalita, Ph.D. (USA)
Felix I. D. Konotey-Ahulu, M.D., FRCP (Ghana)
Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
Fabrice Leu, N.D., (Switzerland)
Alan Lien, Ph.D. (Taiwan)
Homer Lim, M.D. (Philippines)
Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
Pedro Gonzalez Lombana, M.D., Ph.D. (Colombia)
Victor A. Marcial-Vega, M.D. (Puerto Rico)
Juan Manuel Martinez, M.D. (Colombia)
Mignonne Mary, M.D. (USA)
Joseph Mercola, D.O. (USA)
Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
Sarah Myhill, MB, BS (United Kingdom)
Tahar Naili, M.D. (Algeria)
Zhiyong Peng, M.D. (China)
Isabella Akyinbah Quakyi, Ph.D. (Ghana)
Selvam Rengasamy, MBBS, FRCOG (Malaysia)
Jeffrey A. Ruterbusch, D.O. (USA)
Gert E. Schuitemaker, Ph.D. (Netherlands)
Thomas N. Seyfried, Ph.D. (USA)
Han Ping Shi, M.D., Ph.D. (China)
T.E. Gabriel Stewart, M.B.B.CH. (Ireland)
Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)

Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D. (USA), Editor-In-Chief
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