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Letters to the Editor Issue 265

by Letters(more info)

listed in letters to the editor, originally published in issue 265 - September 2020

Curing Viruses with Hydrogen Peroxide

Commentary by Thomas E. Levy MD JD

orthomolecular.activehosted.com

https://orthomolecular.activehosted.com/index.php?action=social&chash=3636638817772e42b59d74cff571fbb3.173&s=c7ae1002d2f579a22c16a1b89c854212

 

In an earlier OMNS article, a number of highly effective therapies for COVID-19 were itemized and briefly discussed, along with supporting scientific references for the facts that were presented. [1] Many of these therapies, alone or in combination with other approaches, have been consistently seen to cure cases of COVID-19, including many cases that were very advanced and even ventilator-dependent. Yet in spite of all of this information, most physicians, researchers, and the medical literature they generate in abundance continue to ignore this information. And it is now clear that some medical centers and the physicians that represent them will actively suppress the dissemination of this information. Conscientious physicians who speak out to the contrary face losing their hospital-based employment, and many also face challenges to their licenses from state medical boards. Regardless of where you or your physician stands on the validity of any therapy, the primary fact that dictates whether a therapy is embraced depends almost entirely on how much money can be generated for the doctor, the hospital and the pharmaceutical company.

In addition to the obvious differences between the money generated for natural therapies versus prescription drugs, there are physicians who continually cry out for all clinical therapies to be validated with "large, prospective, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trials." Truth be known, very few prescription drugs meet this standard. It is important to note that such trials can only be performed by deep-pocketed drug companies or well-endowed research institutes capable of spending enormous amounts of money (often in the millions of dollars). And neither the research institute nor the drug company has the slightest interest in establishing that expensive drugs can be undercut by any of many effective natural remedies. Finally, it should be understood that enrolling very sick patients in trials that have a placebo group is highly unethical when the therapy has already been clearly established to have a positive clinical impact with no significant toxicity. These large clinical trials are really only appropriate to establish how effectively a drug relieves disease symptoms along with determining the incidence and degree of toxicity that it can produce.

Stopping the Pandemic: Inhalation Medicine

The only way to stop the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to prevent or deal with any such future calamities, is to apply a therapy that is highly effective, completely nontoxic, readily available, and inexpensive. Lacking any one of these four aspects of a potential therapy can cripple how well a pandemic can be promptly and readily resolved.

Inhalation Medicine is a growing branch of medicine that is providing a wide array of new approaches to disease via the inhalation of therapeutic agents into the lungs. Although the application of agents via inhalation has been around since ancient times, the current and widely available technology of inexpensive and highly efficient nebulization devices is rapidly expanding this form of medicine application.

Nebulization is a well-established procedure utilized to deliver any of a wide variety of therapeutic agents into the lungs to combat infection and/or improve lung function in different medical conditions. [2-4] Patients with chronic lung disease and asthma are regularly treated with this procedure. The therapeutic agents are dissolved in a solute (often water or saline solution) and converted into a fine mist of such a tiny particle size that it can reach deeply into the lungs. At the same time, such a nebulized agent is also reaching inside the sinuses, along with all the mucosal surfaces in the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Nebulization therapy is being used effectively for the prevention of pneumonia in patients supported on mechanical ventilation. [5] It is also being increasingly used as an additional option for the delivery of different drugs in patients on mechanical ventilation. [6]

COVID-19 infections, along with the common cold, influenza, and any other respiratory viral infection, are ideally addressed by nebulizing agents that inactivate viruses and kill cells already having a high virus content. While early intervention with an appropriately prescribed and nebulized pathogen-killing agent can serve as an effective monotherapy, it is best to regard all of the applications of Inhalation Medicine as natural adjuncts to other indicated medical therapies for both respiratory conditions as well as for various chronic diseases. While respiratory infections are most accessible by nebulization, many other conditions in the lungs and the rest of the body can be positively impacted by the nebulization of appropriate agents.

It is important to note that this article seeks only to describe a therapy that is highly effective, potentially accessible to any person on the planet, exceptionally inexpensive, and easily available without requiring a prescription. I am not trying to convince the reader to just nebulize HP and do nothing else. It is vital to your general health as well as to overcome COVID-19 to take all of the quality supplements available and affordable to you, including, but definitely not limited to, vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin D, vitamin K2, iodine, zinc, and quercetin. [1] That said, however, prompt HP nebulization can be expected to reliably eradicate respiratory and pharyngeal pathogens and to facilitate the rapid recovery from any infection entering the body through the nose or mouth, including COVID-19.

Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) Biochemistry and Physiology

Many people, including physicians, simply regard HP as an effective disinfectant capable of decontaminating surfaces from contaminating pathogens. They recognize its ability to readily clean and disinfect open wounds as well. In fact, HP has been documented to readily kill all pathogens against which it has been tested, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Some pathogens require a higher concentration and a longer exposure time to HP in order to be killed, but they all have been documented to succumb. [7-10]

Like all other agents capable of causing oxidation, HP is toxic in high enough concentrations. However, at the low concentration levels to be discussed in this article, it is completely nontoxic. Even the best pharmaceutical drugs can harm and kill. Over 100,000 Americans die annually due to the toxicity of prescription drugs properly dosed and administered for various conditions. Nobody dies from hydrogen peroxide applied at its established, therapeutic concentrations.

A tiny non-ionic molecule, HP readily crosses the membranes of both pathogens and cells in the body. HP is literally present everywhere in the body, both inside the cells and in the extracellular spaces. [11] The normal physiology of the body involves the continual generation of HP throughout the body. Furthermore, HP molecules are actually quite stable and not prone to oxidize surrounding molecules except when certain local conditions exist, as is present in acute and chronic infections. [12] Pathogens have high levels of reactive (unbound) iron inside them, and it is a process of electron donation from iron to HP inside the pathogen-filled cells or inside the invading pathogens themselves that forms the highly destructive oxidizing agent known as hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radicals quickly kill pathogens and also readily destroy cells that are already heavily laden with pathogens.

Because of this ability of HP to generate hydroxyl radical in iron-filled pathogens, it serves as a primary way in which the body mounts a natural defence against infection. In every sense of the word, HP is the body's natural antibiotic. The generation of HP has been shown to increase in the presence of greater degrees of infection and inflammation. [13] Activated phagocytes responding to a site of infection and inflammation naturally generate massive amounts of HP into the extracellular space to help deal with the pathogens. [14,15] Very interestingly, phagocytes also have high concentrations of vitamin C, which can help supply the electrons to HP via the free iron present to form hydroxyl radicals. Also, vitamin C is known to help generate increased amounts of extracellular HP for better pathogen-killing. [16.17]

Also, as one might expect from a natural defence mechanism, the by-products of HP that result from its normal metabolism and from its anti-pathogen effects are completely nontoxic, in striking contrast to virtually all prescription agents utilized to treat infections. When HP has been metabolized, only water and oxygen remain. One can actually think of HP as being an effective storage form of oxygen, waiting for the right microenvironment in which to release it. This means that HP can kill pathogens and improve the health of the microenvironment in which the pathogens were killed at the same time.

In a normal, uninfected state, pulmonary epithelial cells, the cells lining the airways of the lungs, naturally excrete and express HP. [18] This process finely coats HP onto the exposed side of these cells, protecting the lungs from the new pathogens contained in every breath. Of note, when inflammation and infection are already present, increased amounts of HP are found in the exhaled breath. [19] This is consistent with a natural compensatory mechanism to help contain the infection and keep it from spreading. HP has also been documented to be present in human urine, where it can also provide its anti-pathogen effects. [20] The ubiquitous and essential role of HP in the body is further reflected in its vital role as a signalling molecule in both the intracellular and extracellular spaces, directly influencing and modulating multiple metabolic processes. [21]

In addition to its presence throughout the body, both inside and outside the cells, HP is present in drinking water, rain water, and sea water. It is also assimilated from the diet. The relationship of HP to water and oxygen in general is also reflected in the fact that it can be spontaneously generated in microdroplets of water, with tinier droplets resulting in greater degrees of production. [22,23]

HP Nebulization for Respiratory Infections, Including COVID-19

The search for an effective, nontoxic, available, and inexpensive respiratory virus therapy could end with HP. In particular, HP nebulization would be the HP application of choice in this pandemic. Intravenous HP infusions of the correct concentration and administered properly are also highly effective against viruses and other infections, but this application of HP will not satisfy the availability requirement needed to quell a pandemic.

As should now be apparent from the role that HP already plays in the body in protecting against infection, the nebulization of HP into the sinuses, nasal passages, throat, and lungs is just a straightforward and quite elegant way to augment the body's natural expression of HP to combat infection and inflammation. Individual sensitivities to inhaled HP can vary widely, but a 3% concentration or far lower (even as low as 0.1%) will reliably kill pathogens where they encounter the HP. When the pathogens have been killed, sensitivity to the inhaled HP increases and it is then less well-tolerated, since the mucosal lining cells can be irritated by the HP when it no longer has pathogens upon which to exert its killing/oxidative impact. The only "toxic" effects of inhaled HP consist of minor degrees of nasal and throat irritation that rapidly resolve upon termination of the nebulization. [24]

Also, while HP is known to kill all pathogens, it is especially effective against viruses encountered via respiratory routes, which is the case with all cold and influenza-causing viruses, including coronaviruses. Large studies examining this clinical impact of HP nebulization remain to be done, but it is already clear that this therapy is effective for many patients, extraordinarily safe, and of inconsequential cost (less than ten cents of HP per nebulization). There is everything to be gained and nothing to be lost in applying HP in this manner. It does not need to displace traditional therapies, as it can augment the positive impact of any other clinical intervention. There are no traditional therapies that nebulized HP works to counteract in any way.

For early Onset and Treatment of Coronavirus

Regular off-the shelf 3% HP can be utilized. Preparations of greater pharmacological purity can be obtained if desired (food grade). Food grade HP typically comes in concentrations greater than 3% and must be appropriately diluted. HP in a concentration greater than 3% should never be nebulized.

For most adults, the 3% concentration can be utilized in the nebulization chamber undiluted. This optimizes the degree and rapidity of the antiviral and anti-pathogen effect. However, don't be reluctant to dilute the 3% solution if not easily tolerated. Note that the first few partial inhalations might not be well-tolerated, but these initial inhalations effectively "coat" the mucous membranes with the HP mist, and subsequent inhalations are not only well-tolerated but relaxing. However, never continue inhaling any agent that makes breathing more difficult.

When a runny nose or slightly sore throat is already present, it is recommended that 5- to 15-minute nebulization sessions be undertaken several times daily or until a symptomatic relief is realized. Many individuals report significant improvement only a few hours after the first one or two treatments. However, it would be advisable to persist in these treatments several times daily for at least 24 to 48 hours after you feel everything is completely normal in your sinuses, nose, and throat to assure a complete resolution of the infection.

For some, the 3% concentration results in too much stinging/burning in the nose or soreness in the throat. Such individuals can dilute with water until they find their highest comfortable concentration. Anybody can tolerate a low enough dilution of the HP solution with water. Additional water can always be added until the nebulization is completely comfortable. Lower HP concentrations can be utilized with clearly beneficial effect, but a positive clinical response can be expected to occur more rapidly with the higher concentrations.

Prevention/Maintenance

As it is a completely nontoxic therapy, HP nebulization can be done as often as desired. If done on a daily basis, a very positive impact on bowel and gut function will also often be realized, as killing the chronic pathogen colonization present in most noses and throats stops the 24/7 swallowing of these pathogens and their associated toxins. When done in the absence of clinical infection, just 1 to 2 minutes of slow, deep breathing with the nebulizer should serve as an excellent preventive measure.

If daily prevention is not a practical option, be ready to nebulize whenever you feel you have had a significant pathogen exposure, as when somebody sneezes in your face or when you finally get off of the plane after a long flight. Don't wait for initial symptoms. Just nebulize at your first opportunity. Prevention is always easier than remediation.

Of great practical significance, HP nebulizations can also be expected to rapidly resolve a positive COVID-19 test after killing the virus in the nose and nasophyrynx, and quarantine periods can then be shortened, often by many days.

References

1. Levy T (2020) COVID-19: How can I cure thee? Let me count the ways. OMNS Vol. 16, No. 37. http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n37.shtml

2. Shirk M, Donahue K, Shirvani J (2006) Unlabeled uses of nebulized medications. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 63:1704-1716. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16960254

3. Martin A, Finlay W (2015) Nebulizers for drug delivery to the lungs. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 12:889-900. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25534396

4. Lavorini F, Buttini F, Usmani O (2019) 100 years of drug delivery to the lungs. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 260:143-159. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31792683

5. Karimpour H, Hematpour B, Mohammadi S et al. (2020) Effect of nebulized eucalyptus for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients under mechanical ventilation: a randomized double blind clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine Feb 21. Online ahead of print. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32088670

6. McCarthy S, Gonzalez H, Higgins B (2020) Future trends in nebulized therapies for pulmonary disease. Journal of Personalized Medicine 10:E37. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32397615

7. Dockrell H, Playfair J (1983) Killing of blood-stage murine malaria parasites by hydrogen peroxide. Infection and Immunity 39:456-459. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6822428

8. Heckert R, Best M, Jordan L et al., (1997) Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:3916-3918. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9327555

9. Berrie E, Andrews L, Yezli S, Otter J (2011) Hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) inactivation of adenovirus. Letters in Applied Microbiology 52:555-558. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21418259

10. Goyal S, Chander Y, Yezli S, Otter J (2014) Evaluating the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour. The Journal of Hospital Infection 86:255-259. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24656442

11. Halliwell B, Clement M, Ramalingam J, Long L (2000) Hydrogen peroxide. Ubiquitous in cell culture and in vivo? IUBMB Life 50:251-257. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11327318

12. Halliwell B, Clement M, Long L (2000) Hydrogen peroxide in the human body. FEBS Letters 486:10-13. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11108833

13. Caffarelli C, Calcinai E, Rinaldi L et al. (2012) Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation and after treatment. Respiration 84:291-298. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23018317

14. Root R, Metcalf J, Oshino N, Chance B (1975) H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis. I. Documentation, quantitation, and some regulating factors. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 55:945-955. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1123431

15. Root R, Metcalf J (1977) H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis. Relationship to superoxide anion formation and cellular catabolism of H2O2: studies with normal and cytochalasin B-treated cells. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 60:1266-1279. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/199619

16. Levine M, Padayatty S, Espey M (2011) Vitamin C: a concentration-function approach yields pharmacology and therapeutic discoveries. Advances in Nutrition 2:78-88. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22332036

17. Pei Z, Wu K, Li Z et al. (2019) Pharmacologic ascorbate as a pro-drug for hydrogen peroxide release to kill mycobacteria. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 109:2119-2127. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30551469

18. Hidvegi M (2020) Inhaled nebulized sodium pyruvate use in COVID-19 patients. The Israel Medical Association Journal 22:278. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32378817

19. Jobsis Q, Raatgeep H, Schellekens S et al. (1998) Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values. The European Respiratory Journal 12:483-485. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9727806

20. Varma S, Devamanoharan P (1990) Excretion of hydrogen peroxide in human urine. Free Radical Research Communications 8:73-78. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2318421

21. Rice M (2011) H2O2: a dynamic neuromodulator. Neuroscientist 17:389-406. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21666063

22. Lee J, Walker K, Han H (2019) Spontaneous generation of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous microdroplets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116:19294-19298. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31451646

23. Zhu C, Francisco J (2020) Production of hydrogen peroxide enabled by microdroplets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116:19222-19224. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31484759

24. Ernstgard L, Sjogren B, Johanson G (2012) Acute effects of exposure to vapors of hydrogen peroxide in humans. Toxicology Letters 212:222-227. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22677343

 

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Ian Brighthope, MBBS, FACNEM (Australia)
Gilbert Henri Crussol, D.M.D. (Spain)
Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
Ian Dettman, Ph.D. (Australia)
Damien Downing, M.B.B.S., M.R.S.B. (United Kingdom)
Hugo Galindo, M.D. (Colombia)
Martin P. Gallagher, M.D., D.C. (USA)
Michael J. Gonzalez, N.M.D., D.Sc., Ph.D. (Puerto Rico)
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Tonya S. Heyman, M.D. (USA)
Suzanne Humphries, M.D. (USA)
Ron Hunninghake, M.D. (USA)
Robert E. Jenkins, D.C. (USA)
Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
Jeffrey J. Kotulski, D.O. (USA)
Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D. (USA)
Alan Lien, Ph.D. (Taiwan)
Homer Lim, M.D. (Philippines)
Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
Victor A. Marcial-Vega, M.D. (Puerto Rico)
Charles C. Mary, Jr., M.D. (USA)
Mignonne Mary, M.D. (USA)
Jun Matsuyama, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)
Joseph Mercola, D.O. (USA)
Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
Tahar Naili, M.D. (Algeria)
W. Todd Penberthy, Ph.D. (USA)
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Selvam Rengasamy, MBBS, FRCOG (Malaysia)
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Hyoungjoo Shin, M.D. (South Korea)
Thomas L. Taxman, M.D. (USA)
Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)
Garry Vickar, M.D. (USA)
Ken Walker, M.D. (Canada)
Raymond Yuen, MBBS, MMed (Singapore)
Anne Zauderer, D.C. (USA)

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Covid19 – A Tale of Two Conditions

by Steve Walton MSc FIBMS

 

The virus coronavirus SARS CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) which causes Covid19 may have been named prematurely. As more has become known about the infection, the severe disease does not appear to be a respiratory syndrome at all. Patients who only have a respiratory illness tend not to have a severe condition, while patients who develop a severe condition tend to have non-respiratory conditions, primarily thrombotic or hyper-immune states. Why should this be?

Although scientists and clinicians still do not fully understand what Covid19 does to a patient several facts have emerged over the last 6 months that at least allows us to speculate, or for the scientists hypothesise what is happening. It appears when first infected with the virus patients suffer no symptoms (asymptomatic) for the first 48 to 72 hours. During this period they are contagious and capable of spreading the infection to others. After this initial lag phase, the patient then progresses down one of two paths, either they remain asymptomatic or they develop a cough and fever which may require them taking to their beds as with flu.

The patients who remain symptom-free pose a large threat to the rest of the population, as they tend to carry on with normal life; unaware that they are passing on the virus to people they meet; on the bus, at the shops, at work, in the park etc.  Identifying these carriers is difficult and requires back-tracing from patients who develop symptoms.

Patients who develop symptoms again divide in to two groups, those that after 9 or 10 days start to get better, and those that after 9 to 10 days get markedly worse. For the patients that start to improve after this time they tend to fully recover like after flu.

Up to this point patients can be classed as having one condition, a respiratory illness, albeit not acute. It is the patients who deteriorate after about a week to 10 days that develop a second condition. This second condition, although initiated by becoming infected with SARS Cov-2, does not appear to be directly related to viral activity, but is more probably due to the patient’s body being unable to control its defence mechanisms.

When a human body becomes infected several distinct but interactive defence systems are activated. These include the coagulation system; the immune system both cellular and chemical, the complement system (a system which can puncture bacteria) and a little known or understood system called the Kinin-Kallikrein system, which controls inflammation, blood pressure control, coagulation and pain. All of these systems are delicately controlled by a series of activators or inhibitors which work through a series of positive and negative feedback loops to by and large maintain the status quo for the body to continue to function. If the balance of any of these systems is disrupted then there are serious consequences. Haemophilia an inherited disorder where the coagulation factor, factor 8 (FVIII) is either missing or severely reduced illustrates this point. FVIII is one of more than 20 identified components involved in the control of blood clotting. Yet untreated haemophiliacs have severe life-shortening problems.

What does this mean for Covid19 patients? Scientists are convinced that SARS Cov-2 infects humans by being pulled in to the epithelial cells which line the airways into and including the lungs. This happens because the protein coat of the virus happens to have either the same or a similar sequence of amino acids to human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). The epithelial cells have a sequence of amino acids which causes ACE to stick to it, called ACE receptors. When the virus is inhaled if it comes in contact with a free ACE receptor it binds and enters the cell. Once inside the cell the virus takes over the cells reproductive capacity and millions of new viral particles are produced. The epithelial cells burst and die releasing these millions of virus particles to both bind to more epithelial cells and to be exhaled by the patient to possibly infect other humans.

Why is this relevant? ACE is a control mechanism for one of the key activation factors of that little understood system the Kinin-Kalikrein, bradykinin. Bradykinin receptors are also found on lung epithelial cells adjacent to the ACE receptors thus under normal conditions ACE bound to lung receptors markedly inhibits the effect of Bradykinin, with the ACE receptor either bound to a SARS Cov-2 virus or destroyed, patients with Covid19 have a markedly reduced system for controlling the effects of Bradykinin which has a major impact on the patient and pushes them in to the second condition seen in Covid19 patients.

Bradykinin is a potent activator of several cellular and humoral systems, leading to vasodilation (enlarging of the blood vessels) which causes a drop in blood pressure, porous blood vessels which leads to fluids leaking from the blood into the tissues, including the lungs, activation of the white cells to defend against infection, including monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes. 

How does this create the second Covid19 condition? A majority of patients that die from Covid19 infection do so because of multiple blood clots in various organs including the lung, brain and liver. These patients have been shown to have levels of the coagulation factor fibrinogen 10 times normal. They have also been found to have increased levels of the clotting marker D-Dimer which is only raised when a clot has occurred within the body. Bradykinin is produced by the initial activation of the clotting system which can be activated both by the release of a substance caused tissue factor which is found in high concentrations in lung tissue. Release of tissue factor can be expected when lungs are damaged for example when a virus destroys the cells. Coagulation is also activated when neutrophils are activated to defend against infections because they contain a pro-coagulant which is released both upon activation and their destruction.  Another interesting fact is that fibrinogen production is stimulated by activated monocytes which are found in the liver tissue where fibrinogen is produced.

The chemicals that control all these processes are called cytokines, they are potent activators or inhibitors that are released from various cells when the cell is activated. In Covid19 patients the balance of cytokine activity is pushed towards activation and the inhibition loops appear either not to be working or overwhelmed by the activation loop. The activation loop of

 

Loop diagram

 

appears to have had a major inhibitor removed. The known inhibitor is Angiotensin Converting Enzyme which is known to be impaired by Covid19 infection. The difference in whether patients develop the second stage of the condition the non-respiratory stage may be down to how many ACE receptors are damaged by the virus before the patient recovers from the first phase.

About Benson Viscometers

Benson Viscometers, based in Haverfordwest, is a manufacturing company specializing in the design, development and manufacture of high-quality plasma viscometers and blood measuring equipment. Established in 1999, the family-run company has established itself as the leader in the provision of Plasma Viscometers throughout the UK. The majority of the clinical analysers have been installed in National Health Service (NHS) Pathology laboratories, but private laboratories located in Europe and the USA also use our equipment. The plasma viscosity test looks for abnormal proteins in the blood and is highly regarded as an important aid to diagnosis for a range of conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobuinaemia.  https://www.bensonviscometers.com/

Source:

Jenny White <PR@jennywhitewriter.vuelio.co.uk>

www.jennywhitewriter.com

https://uk.linkedin.com/pub/jenny-white/89/6a8/a33

 

 

Pioneering Research Reveals Certain Human Genes Relate to Gut Bacteria

 

The role genetics and gut bacteria play in human health has long been a fruitful source of scientific enquiry, but new research marks a significant step forward in unravelling this complex relationship. Its findings could transform our understanding and treatment of all manner of common diseases, including obesity, irritable bowel syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease. The international study, led by the University of Bristol and published today in Nature Microbiology, found specific changes in DNA – the chains of molecules comprising our genetic make-up – affected both the existence and amount of particular bacteria in the gut.

 

fecal bacteria

Photo caption: A bacterial culture taken from faecal sample.

Photo credit: Chloe Russell, as featured in her book Up Your A-Z An Encyclopedia On Gut Bacteria.

 

Lead author Dr David Hughes, Senior Research Associate in Applied Genetic Epidemiology, said: “Our findings represent a significant breakthrough in understanding how genetic variation affects gut bacteria. Moreover, it marks major progress in our ability to know whether changes in our gut bacteria actually cause, or are a consequence of, human disease.”

The human body comprises various unique ecosystems, each of which is populated by a vast and diverse array of microorganisms. They include millions of bacteria in the gut, known as the microbiome, that help digest food and produce molecules essential for life, which we cannot produce ourselves. This has prompted researchers to question if gut bacteria may also directly influence human health and disease.

Previous research has identified numerous genetic changes apparently related to bacterial composition in the gut, but only one such association has been observed consistently. This example involves a well-known single mutation that changes whether someone can digest the sugar (lactose) in fresh milk. The same genetic variation also predicts the prevalence of bacteria, Bifidobacterium, that uses or digests lactose as an energy source.

This study, the biggest of its kind, identified 13 DNA changes related to changes in the presence or quantity of gut bacteria. Researchers at Bristol worked with Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel to analyse data from 3,890 individuals from three different population studies: one in Belgium (the Flemish Gut Flora Project) and two in Germany (Food Chain Plus and PopGen). In each individual, the researchers measured millions of known DNA changes and, by sampling their faeces, also registered the presence and abundance of hundreds of gut bacteria.

Dr Hughes said: “It was exciting to identify new and robust signals across the three study populations, which makes the correlation of genetic variation and gut bacteria much more striking and compelling. Now comes the great challenge of confirming our observations with other studies and dissecting how exactly these DNA changes might impact bacterial composition.”

Such investigations could hold the key to unlocking the intricate biological mechanisms behind some of the biggest health challenges of our time.

Study co-author Dr Kaitlin Wade, Lecturer in Epidemiology at the University of Bristol, said: “A strength here is that these findings provide a groundwork for causal analyses to determine, for instance, whether the presence of specific bacteria increases the risk of a disease or is a manifestation of it.”

“The implications for our understanding of human health and our approach to medicine are far-reaching and potentially game changing.”

Further Information

The research was funded by Wellcome Trust Investigator grant, University of Bristol National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Cancer Research UK Integrative Cancer Epidemiology 250 Programme, Medical Research Council and University of Bristol, University of Bristol Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund.

Reference

1. Hughes, D.A., Bacigalupe, R., Wang, J. et al. Genome-wide associations of human gut microbiome variation and implications for causal inference analyses' Nat Microbiol (2020). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0743-8   https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0743-8  2020.

Source

Victoria Tagg, victoria.tagg@bristol.ac.uk at University of Bristol

 

 

Singing is No More Risky than Talking Finds New COVID-19 Study

Issued by University of Bristol, Imperial College London, Lewisham & Greenwich NHS Trust
Please note this is a preprint, so it is a preliminary piece of research that has not yet been through peer review and has not been published in a scientific journal – so this is early data.
The performing arts has been badly affected during the coronavirus pandemic with live musical performances cancelled for many months because singing was identified as a potential “higher risk” activity.  New collaborative research has shown that singing does not produce very substantially more respiratory particles than when speaking at a similar volume.  The findings, published on the pre-print server ChemRxiv,[1] are crucial in providing COVID-19 guidance for live musical performances and the safe distancing of performers and audience.
The research project, known as PERFORM (ParticulatE Respiratory Matter to InForm Guidance for the Safe Distancing of PerfOrmeRs in a COVID-19 PandeMic), was supported by Public Health England and the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), and carried out by a collaborative team from Imperial College London, University of Bristol, Wexham Park Hospital, Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust and Royal Brompton Hospital.
This is the first study to look at the amounts of aerosols and droplets (up to 20 µm diameter) generated by a large group of 25 professional performers completing a range of exercises including breathing, speaking, coughing, and singing. The experiments included the same individuals singing and speaking ‘Happy Birthday’ between the decibel (dB) ranges of 50–60, 70-80 and 90-100 dB.

Although a number of studies reported online have attempted to examine the quantities of particulate matter expelled by performers, they have struggled to correctly quantify the aerosol and droplets because of the large number of ambient particles in the environment, making it impossible to identify which particles come from the performer and which are just already present in the space. Carrying out measurements in an orthopaedic operating theatre, an environment of “zero aerosol background”, has allowed the team to unambiguously identify the aerosols produced from specific vocalisations. The researchers discovered that there is a steep rise in aerosol mass with increase in the loudness of the singing and speaking, rising by as much as a factor of 20-30. However, singing does not produce very substantially more aerosol than speaking at a similar volume.  There were no significant differences in aerosol production between genders or among different genres (choral, musical theatre, opera, choral, jazz, gospel, rock and pop). Musical organizations could consider treating speaking and singing equally, with more attention focused on the volume at which the vocalisation occurs, the number of participants (source strength), the type of room in which the activity occurs (i.e. air exchange rate) and the duration of the rehearsal and period over which performers are vocalising. Indeed, based on the differences observed between vocalisation and breathing and the likely difference in the number of performers and audience members in many venues, singers may not be responsible for the greatest production of aerosol during a performance and ways to ensure adequate ventilation in the venue may be more important than restricting a specific activity. These recommendations will add to the research that can move towards allowing live musical performances and safe distancing of performers and audience during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Jonathan Reid, Director of ESPRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Aerosol Science and Professor of Physical Chemistry in the School of Chemistry at the University of Bristol and a corresponding author on the paper, said: “The study has shown the transmission of viruses in small aerosol particles generated when someone sings or speaks are equally possible with both activities generating similar numbers of particles.
“Our research has provided a rigorous scientific basis for COVID-19 recommendations for arts venues to operate safely for both the performers and audience by ensuring that spaces are appropriately ventilated to reduce the risk of airborne transmission.”
Culture Secretary Oliver Dowden said: "I know singing is an important passion and pastime for many people who I’m sure will join me in welcoming the findings of this important study.
"We have worked closely with medical experts throughout this crisis to develop our understanding of Covid-19, and we have now updated our guidance in light of these findings so people can get back to performing together safely."
Declan Costello, a consultant ear, nose and throat surgeon specialising in voice disorders at Wexham Park Hospital, and corresponding author on the paper, added: “This research will give useful information to performers, venues and arts organisations about how they can reintroduce singing performances.”

Preprint paper on ChemRxiv
‘Comparing the respirable aerosol concentrations and particle size distributions generated by singing, speaking and breathing’ by Gregson et al. on ChemRxiv [1]
Please note this is a preprint, so it is a preliminary piece of research that has not yet been through peer review and has not been published in a scientific journal – so this is early data.
<https://fluff.bris.ac.uk/fluff/u2/ficmc/NhWlHrxw7asKGF6B5XWQcwwVf/>
The corresponding authors on the manuscript are Jonathan Reid, Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Bristol and Declan Costello, ENT Surgeon, Wexham Park Hospital. Co-authors include: Pallav Shah, Professor of Respiratory Medicine at Imperial College London and Consultant Respiratory Physician at the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust/Chelsea and Westminster Hospital; Professor James Calder, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London; Dr Bryan Bzdek, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol; Natalie Watson, ENT Surgeon, Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust; Dr Christopher Orton, Clinical Research Fellow, Royal Brompton Hospital; and Dr Thomas Finnie from Public Health England.

About Professor Jonathan Reid’s Research Group, University of Bristol
Professor Reid is Director of the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Aerosol Science, current president of the UK and Ireland Aerosol Society, and Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Bristol.

About Mr Declan Costello
Declan Costello is a consultant ear, nose and throat surgeon specialising in voice disorders.  He is also a keen singer and is on the Council of the British Laryngological Association.  His previous research has focused on non-linear mathematical analysis of voices. Follow Declan on Twitter at: https://twitter.com/voicedoctor_uk

About the Bristol UNCOVER Group
In response to the COVID-19 crisis, researchers at the University of Bristol formed the Bristol COVID Emergency Research (UNCOVER) Group to pool resources, capacities, and research efforts to combat this infection. Bristol UNCOVER includes clinicians, immunologists, virologists, synthetic biologists, aerosol scientists, epidemiologists and mathematical modellers and has links to behavioural and social scientists, ethicists and lawyers and is supported by a large number of junior academic and administrative colleagues. Follow Bristol UNCOVER on Twitter at: https://twitter.com/BristolUncover For more information about the University of Bristol’s coronavirus (COVID-19) research priorities visit: www.bristol.ac.uk/research/impact/coronavirus/research-priorities/

Reference

1. Comparing the respirable aerosol concentrations and particle size distributions generated by singing, speaking and breathing’ by Gregson et al. on ChemRxiv

https://fluff.bris.ac.uk/fluff/u2/ficmc/NhWlHrxw7asKGF6B5XWQcwwVf/

Source: "caroline.clancy@bristol.ac.uk" <caroline.clancy@bristol.ac.uk>

 

 

First Clinical Trial on Prevention of Covid-19 in India with Neem Capsules

by Klaus Ferlow HMH HA

Today I am happy to inform you about exciting news. Girish Soman, founder & CEO of Nisarga Biotech Pvt Ltd, Satara announces a collaboration with the All India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA), New Delhi to conduct India's first clinical trial on prevention of COVID-19 with neem capsules. More information can be obtained from this link:

https://in.news.yahoo.com/india-institute-ayurveda-collaborates-nisarga-093951700.html

While attending as speaker the World Neem Conference in December 2018 in Bangalore I was invited to visit Nisarga Biotech Pvt Ltd together with my friends Nick & Daphne Miaoulis, ABACO NEEM, Bahamas, and received a tour of the company by Girish Somand and his son Devendra and was also able to visit one of their certified organic fruit and herb farms which was impressive!

I am the Canadian researcher of the miraculous versatile medicinal neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, that offers better plant, human, animal, and environmental health as part of the oldest most successful botanical medical system in the world, Ayurveda from India with a history of over 5000 years. In 1994 I started my research about the remarkable neem tree and invented together with our son Peter Ayurvedic herbal medicinal personal neem care products with no harmful ingredients to holistic practitioners/clinics and selected stores across Canada and parts of USA. I am also the author / publisher of a neem consumer book Neem: Nature's Healing Gift to Humanity published in 2015, available from amazon in paperback and as e-book. neemresearch.ca/shop. In Canada I received the nickname "Dr Neem"

I am one of the 14 core-founding members from Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, India, North America, Europe and The Middle East establishing in 2017 the WNO - World Neem Organisation, Mumbai, India representing North America, Germany, United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries. As a speaker I attended the two World Neem Conferences in Nagpur in 2012 and Bangalore in 2018. Our purpose: educate, market and promote the benefits and healing power of the remarkable neem tree and create worldwide a NEEM WAVE under the umbrella "Neem - The Earth's Saviour!"

Words of Wisdom

"Health is not everything but without health everything is nothing.!"

Dr Bernard Jensen,  (1908 - 2001) DC ND PhD Iridologis, Clinical Nutritionist, Author 40 books

Source and Further Information

Klaus Ferlow neemresearch1@gmail.com Honorary Master Herbalist (HMH), Dominion Herbal College, Herbal Advocate (HA), htts://nisargabiotech.com , https://aiia.gov.in, www.worldneemorganisation.org, https://neem.world, neemresearch.ca https://www.ferlowbotanicals.com

 

 

Treat Hand Gels as Last Resort, or Risk Superbug ‘Armageddon’ - Natural Products Global

by Jim Manson

Republished from naturalproductsglobal.com

https://www.naturalproductsglobal.com/europe/treat-hand-gels-as-last-resort-or-risk-superbug-armageddon/

Prolonged, mass use of alcohol-based hand gels during the coronavirus pandemic could lead to a superbug ‘armageddon situation’, a global expert in surface disinfection has warned. 

Dr Andrew Kemp, head of the Scientific Advisory Board on the British Institute of Cleaning Science, warns that overuse can allow bacteria to develop immunity and says hand-washing is the most effective way to reduce virus transmission risk. 

The Lincoln University academic told the Daily Express this week: “Hand gels should only be used as a last resort and as a short term temporary measure or stop gap if soap and water are not available.”

“At the moment there is no published proof that alcohol gels killed Covid-19 itself.

“Even if they did kill 99.9 percent of all bacteria, there can be more than a million bacteria on your hands at any one time leaving 10,000 alive after sanitisation.” 

Kemp warns that surviving bacteria were themselves “highly dangerous pathogens” and that If antibiotic resistant superbugs adapt to survive alcohol it could lead to an “armageddon situation”. 

His research on the subject is published in the American Journal of Biomedical Science and Research and will be presented at a leading conference on superbugs in Amsterdam in October.

In an article for in Pathology In Practice published in June, Kemp wrote: ‘Those of us who regard ourselves as ‘experts’ can make some educated guesses about what else does or does not kill SARS-CoV-2.  We know that antivirals that work against similar structured viruses do not work against SARS-CoV-2, and there is anecdotal evidence that combinations of current antivirals may work in some cases, but not all.  Vaccines against other similar structured viruses do not work against the new coronavirus, so why has the assumption been made that the environmental disinfectants and hand sanitisers that kill similarly structured viruses also kill SARS-CoV-2?

“Why is advice being given about alcohol sanitisers with no supporting evidence? Have we forgotten the potential harm that alcohol hand sanitisers cause by significantly increasing the number of bacteria present on skin?”

“Why is advice being given about alcohol sanitisers with no supporting evidence? Have we forgotten the potential harm that alcohol hand sanitisers cause by significantly increasing the number of bacteria present on skin, and by changing the species from a relatively harmless Staphylococcus epidermidis, to a highly pathogenic Bacillus species?”.

Kemp says that leading hand sanitiser brands in the US and Europe have been warned by regulators for claims that their products kill SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Claims are typically made that products kill ‘human coronavirus’. “Whatever that is, it certainly isn’t Covid-19,” the academic and adviser says. Kemp says that, to date, only one class of hand sanitiser has been tested against SARS-CoV-2 –  fifth-generation SiQuats. He writes: “Recent research results demonstrate inactivation in less than 10 seconds, and complete destruction of all viral load within 60 seconds (100% kill). This chemistry does not just deactivate, or degenerate, the virus, its RNA is totally destroyed”. 

Republished from naturalproductsglobal.com

https://www.naturalproductsglobal.com/europe/treat-hand-gels-as-last-resort-or-risk-superbug-armageddon/

Source: "Natural Products Global" <news@naturalproductsglobal.email>

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