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Letters to the Editor Issue 193

by Letters(more info)

listed in letters to the editor, originally published in issue 193 - April 2012

 

Apology to Prof AR Khuda-Bukhsh

In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding the ways in which highly diluted substances such as homeopathic remedies can affect the biological and psychological phenotypes of an individual. One of the ways of altering such phenotypes is by changing the gene expression profile, or transcriptome of a cell.

It is now well recognized that homeopathic remedies do have the capacity to re-arrange the transcriptome. (The transcriptome refers those of the cell’s 22,000 or so genes that are expressed in any particular cell.)

In recent articles, see for example, http://tinyurl.com/6cr6b7a and http://tinyurl.com/3j563uk, we put forward the view that homeopathic remedies must be able to interact with the genetic blueprint to alter gene expression. We referred to work published by Drs. Sunila and Frenkel within the last few years to support our view.

I have now become aware that Prof. Khuda-Bukhsh of the University of Kalyani, (who, over many years has published many great pioneering works to do with the role of homeopathy and gene expression), was, in the mid 1990s, the first to postulate that homeopathic remedies act through regulation of gene expression (see below).[1] His postulate is now a recognized fact.  

I unreservedly apologise for this lack of recognition of Prof. Khuda-Bukhsh’s seminal works and foresight.

Reference

1. Public Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Potentized homeopathic drugs act through regulation of gene expression: a hypothesis to explain their mechanism and pathways of action in vivo. Com Ther Med 5: 43-46. 1997.

Dr Peter H Kay

Director, Homeovitality Co. Ltd. UK

peterhkay@gmail.com

www.homeovitality.co.uk

 

FDA Adds Diabetes, Memory Loss Warnings to Statins

Mike Menkes has advised that US health regulators will add warnings to the labels of widely used cholesterol lowering drugs, such as Lipitor, to indicate that they may raise levels of blood sugar and could cause memory loss.
www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/29/us-fda-statins-idUSTRE81R1O220120229

US health regulators will add warnings to the labels of widely used cholesterol lowering drugs, such as Lipitor, to indicate that they may raise levels of blood sugar and could cause memory loss.
The Food and Drug administration announced the changes to the safety information on the labels of statins such as Pfizer Inc's Lipitor, AstraZeneca's Crestor and Merck & Co's Zocor.

Statins have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart attack and heart disease, and the FDA said the new information should not scare people into stopping taking the drugs.

"The value of statins in preventing heart disease has been clearly established," Amy Egan, deputy director for safety in FDA's Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology Products, said in a statement. "Their benefit is indisputable, but they need to be taken with care and knowledge of their side effects."

Lipitor, which became available late last year in generic form as atorvastatin, is the world's all-time biggest selling prescription medicine with cumulative sales of over $130 billion.

The generic version of Zocor, simvastatin, in 2010 was the second most widely prescribed drug in the United States, according to IMS Health.

The FDA said it was aware of studies in which some patients taking statins may have a small increased risk of higher blood sugar levels and of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

The statin labels will also now reflect reports of certain cognitive effects such as memory loss and confusion experienced by some patients taking the drugs, the agency said. It said those reports generally have not been serious and the symptoms were reversed by stopping use of the statin.

One safety warning long associated with the class of medicines will be reversed, the FDA said: Patients taking statins will no longer need routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes.
"FDA has concluded that serious liver injury with statins is rare and unpredictable in individual patients, and that routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes does not appear to be effective in detecting or preventing this rare side effect," it said.

Other statins, most of which are available as generics, include Livalo, Mevacor, Pravachol, Altoprev and Lescol. There are also combination medicines that include statins, such as Merck's Vytorin and Abbott Laboratories' Simcor.

The agency also said Merck's Mevacor, the world's first approved statin, known generically as lovastatin, should never be taken with certain drugs used to treat HIV and certain bacterial and fungal infections, due to increased risk of a serious muscle disease.
(Reporting By Bill Berkrot and Lewis Krauskopf; editing by John Wallace)

Source
Mike Menkes mikemenkes@yahoo.com

 

Measurement of Fluoride in Urine and Water from Biolab

by Mark Howard

Introduction

Fluoridation of drinking water was first carried out in the city of Grand Rapids, Dakota, USA in 1945. Water fluoridation in the U.K. began in the mid 1950s [1] and has since been carried out on a limited, regional basis. Currently about 10% of the supply, mainly in the Midlands and the Northeast of England, is fluoridated, with the mean fluoride content of water being maintained between 0.9 and 1.1 ppm (mg/L). The World Health Organization has also suggested that drinking water should be adjusted to a concentration of between 0.5 and 1.0 ppm (mg/L), depending on the climate, on account of the alleged dental health benefits of moderate fluoride ingestion [2].

Fluoridation of water is proposed as a safe and inexpensive way to prevent tooth decay, regardless of socio-economic status or access to dental care, but the current US guidelines are that the maximum permitted level of fluoride in drinking water should be lowered to 0.7 ppm (mg/L)[3] to limit the risk of inducing fluorosis due to unknown, and possibly excessive, exposure to fluoride from multiple combined sources. However, the practice of adding any fluoride at all to municipal water supplies has many opponents.

Biological Effects of Fluoride Ingestion

Fluoride is the reduced form of fluorine, which has no known biological essentiality in man. It can occur as fluoroacetate, the fluorinated calcium phosphate common in bedrock silicates. Depending on the rock's mineral content as on well as the water temperature, rainwater filtering through these strata can dissolve fluoroacetate and result in unsafe levels of naturally occurring fluoride in aquifers used for drinking water supplies.[4] However, the majority of ground water reserves do not contain high levels of naturally occurring fluoride.

Ingested fluoride is sequestered into bone as well as teeth[5] and the long-term effects on bone of low-level exposure to fluoride are unknown. A study in Finland that examined hip fractures in elderly women who drank well water with high concentrations of fluoride found that higher fluoride levels were associated with increased risk for hip fractures in women aged 50-64 years.[6] The condition of skeletal fluorosis, characterized by joint pain, dense bone and limited joint movement, has been reported as occurring in individuals drinking water with a fluoride content some thirty times the level recommended for fluoridation; this condition is more common in subjects suffering from nutritional deficiencies. A WHO working group concluded that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur at a total intake of 14 mg fluoride per day, with evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at intakes above about 6 mg fluoride per day.[7]

With drinking water fluoride levels above 5 ppm, fluoride can also cause the development of brittle bone disease. Some studies have also found a higher risk of simple bone fractures in older men and women drinking water with fluoride levels around 1.0 ppm, the level recommended for fluoridation.[8] Despite forceful argument to the contrary, the case for water fluoridation is by no means clear[9] and fluoride ingestion at these low levels has been blamed for a variety of conditions, including many types of cancer (e.g. bladder cancer)[10] and impaired intelligence in children.[11] In addition, mild fluorosis (hypomineralization of the dental enamel) is found in more than one quarter of US children.[12] In communities with high natural fluoride levels in drinking water, the prevalence of dental fluorosis is directly related to the level of fluoride in the water source.[13]

Indications

Fluoride in urine should be measured in subjects with unexplained bone disease, including a tendency to fracture. It may also be of importance in a range of other conditions, including abnormalities of thyroid function. Dental fluorosis in children may be caused by excessive fluoride ingestion. Fluoride in drinking water should be measured to help identify the potential source of excessive fluoride ingestion.

Interpretation: Water samples from non-fluoridated areas should have a fluoride content of less than 0.3 mg/L (ppm).

The above text is extracted from our Fluoride Test Data Sheet which can be downloaded here: Urine and tap water fluoride – datasheet

www.biolab.co.uk/docs/fluoride.pdf 

 Please click here for a sample report:  Urine and tap water fluoride- sample report:

www.biolab.co.uk/docs/rep-fluoride.pdf

References

1. British Fluoridation Society. Technical and scientific aspects of water fluoridation. www.bfsweb.org/One%20in%20a%20million/6%20technical.pdf . Accessed 2012.

2. WHO Expert Committee on Oral Health Status and Fluoride Use. Fluorides and oral health. WHO technical report series 846,1994. www.whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_846.pdf.

3. US Department of Health and Human Services. Proposed HHS recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for prevention of dental caries, January 2011. www.hhs.gov/news/press/2011pres/01/pre_pub_frn_fluoride.html . Accessed 2012.

4. DeSimone LA, Hamilton PA, Gilliom RJ. Quality of water from domestic wells in the United States. United States Geological Survey. 1 June 2009. http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/studies/domestic_wells/ Accessed 2012.

5. Chachra D, Limeback H, Willett TL, Grynpas MD. The long-term effects of water fluoridation on the human skeleton. J Dent Res. 89:1219-1223. 2010.

6. Kurttio P, Gustavsson N, Vartiainen T, Pekkanen J, Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland. Am J Epidemiol.150:817-824. 1999.

7. WHO. Fluoride. www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/draftchemicals/fluoride2003.pdf  . Geneva: 2003.

8. Chachra D, Viera A, Grynpas MD. Fluoride and mineralized tissues. Crit Rev Biomed Eng.36:183-223. 2008.

9. Cheng KK, Chalmers I, Sheldon TA. Adding fluoride to water supplies. BMJ 335:699-703. 2007.

10. Yang CY, Cheng MF, Tsai SS, Hung CF. Fluoride in drinking water and cancer mortality in Taiwan. Environ Res ;82:189-93. 2000.

11. Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN, Wang X, Lu W, Liu SS. Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence in children. Fluoride. 33:74-78. 2000.

12. Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker LK, Canto MT, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis-- United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.54:1-44. 2005.

13. Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Griffin SO, Lockwood SA. Prevalence and trends in enamel fluorosis in the United States from the 1930s to the 1980s. J Am Dent Assoc.133:157-165. 2002.

Source

"Mark Howard \(Biolab\)" mark@biolab.co.uk

Further Information

To order test kits or for any further information about this profile or other Biolab tests Tel: (+44) 020 7636-5959;  info@biolab.co.uk

Biolab Medical Unit, 9 Weymouth Street, London W1W 6DB Tel: (+44) 020-7636 5959/5905; info@biolab.co.uk  www.biolab.co.uk  www.twitter.com/BiolabTests

 

Doctors Say Vitamins are Safe and Effective

The news media proclaim that taking vitamin supplements is of no value and, somehow, actually dangerous. You have heard an earful from reporters. Now let's hear from doctors.

Michael Janson MD

The standard American diet does not provide even the RDA. Two-thirds of all meals are eaten outside the home, and nearly half of them are in fast food joints. You can't expect this to provide all the necessary nutrients, and many studies show that it does not. A large number of people admitted to hospitals are found to have deficiencies, and the problems worsen in the hospital. Those given supplements have a lower rate of complications, faster discharge from the hospital and fewer deaths. Vitamin companies do not send doctors on expense paid vacations or ‘seminars’, as do the drug companies for prescribing their drugs, and vitamins are safe and cheap. But surely this does not influence pharmaceutical-advertising-paid-for media!

Vitamin E in high doses (800 IU) enhances immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Vitamin C in doses (2,000 mg) far above the RDA (90 mg) significantly reduces allergic rhinitis and asthma and speeds the recovery from airway constriction induced by histamine. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) was used successfully to treat trigeminal neuralgia, as described in an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association way back in 1940.

Many people are losing their faith in the medical profession because many doctors are unwilling to accept what is becoming common knowledge: nutrition and nutrient therapies are safer, cheaper and more effective than most other medical treatment. It is clear that most media reporters do not know the current nutrition literature, they do not know the old literature, and they do not know the middle-aged literature. If they do not know the literature, they should not be writing articles.

Martin Gallagher MD DC

I have been a practising physician for 37 years. During that time, I have directly treated and supervised over 12,000 patient encounters per year. With each patient, I have prescribed a variety of vitamins, minerals, homeopathic medicines, and herbs. I have to date not encountered a single complication, anaphylactic reaction or death. The doses have been well above the RDAs for vitamins and minerals. In fact, the IV treatments include doses of ascorbate (vitamin C) that vary from 10,000 to over 100,000 mg per treatment session. At a time when the leading cause of death in the US is correctly prescribed medication, we need to embrace, not chastise, nutritional supplements.

Robert G Smith PhD

Most people in modern societies have vitamin and mineral deficiencies because these nutrients are removed by industrial food processing. Vitamin and mineral supplements are effective in preventing deficiencies that cause major illness such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, dementia, and many others. Supplements of vitamins and minerals, when taken in proper doses large enough to work (For example: vitamin C for an adult at 3,000 - 6,000 mg/day, and much more when stressed or sick), are safe and effective - and far less expensive than taking prescribed drugs overblown by the medical profession and media.

Michael J Gonzalez PhD

Research in Europe has shown that long-term users of antioxidant vitamin supplements have a 48% reduced risk of cancer mortality and 42% lower all-cause mortality.[1] The media did not bother to mention it. There is in fact overwhelming clinical evidence to justify the use of nutritional supplements for the prevention of disease and the support of optimal health. The Lewin Group estimated a $24 billion savings over 5 years if a few basic nutritional supplements were used in the elderly.[2] On the other hand, prescription medication kills over 100,000 people a year.[3]

Thomas Levy MD

There are more politics in modern medicine than in modern politics itself. Today's average physician deserves even less trust than today's average politician, as doctors continue their refusal to allow the scientific data on the profound benefits of vitamins and other antioxidant supplements to reach their eyes and brains. And the staunch support of a press, which collectively no longer has a shred of journalistic or scientific integrity, completes the framing of today's colossal medical fraud. Money always rules the day: properly-dosed vitamins would eliminate far too much of the profit of prescription-based medicine.

William B Grant PhD

Modern lifestyles including wearing clothes and sunscreen, and working and living largely indoors have led to widespread vitamin D deficiencies. Numerous ecological and observational studies have found correlations between higher solar UVB doses and vitamin D concentrations, and reduced risk of many types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, bacterial and viral infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, falls and fractures, cognitive impairment, and many more types of disease. To compensate for lack of sun exposure, 1,000-5,000 IU per day of vitamin D3 should be taken to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations to at least 30-40 ng/ml (75-100 nmol/L). These amounts are safe for all but those with granulomatous diseases, who can develop hypocalcaemia. 1,000 to 5,000 IU/day of vitamin D is effective in reducing risk of many types of diseases, as shown in a number of randomized controlled trials, such as cancer, falls and fractures, type A influenza, and pneumonia.

W Todd Penberthy PhD

Niacin in particular has been shown to provide exceptional benefit in treating cardiovascular disease in clinical trial after clinical trial.[4] By comparison, the popular diabetes drug Avandia was recently found to cause a 43% increase in heart attacks in diabetics.[5] This came out only after Avandia had already become the most popular diabetes drug in the world! Never underestimate the power of market-driven forces to sell drugs, and books, such as The End of Illness by Dr Agus, instead of proper information regarding what actually works best.

People are amazed how quickly simply taking supplemental niacin corrects high cholesterol, high triglycerides, low HDL (the good cholesterol) and VLDL. All of these parameters are pushed in the healthier direction because niacin ultimately functions inside the body in over 450 reactions. There is a reason niacin continues as a preferred therapy for doctors in the know, using niacin therapy for over 50 years now. Niacin works better than any drug to correct dyslipidemia.

One thing to always remember is this. You can ‘prove’ that any drug or vitamin does not work if you are not using high enough doses to achieve the correct concentration of the molecule. Furthermore, all biochemical pathways rely on more than one molecule to function properly, so generally one drug/vitamin is not enough for optimal health. Our bodies rely on vitamins, not drugs, to routinely stave off illness by means we often take for granted. Sometimes we need much more of these essential molecules. This is common sense, and it is known as orthomolecular medicine.

James A Jackson PhD

For over twenty years, I was the laboratory director of a federally approved clinical reference laboratory. We accepted samples from all the United States and foreign countries. We measured all the fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in blood and urine. It was common to find vitamin deficiencies in both males and females, whether children or adults. The most common vitamin deficiencies were vitamin C and vitamin D3. The clinic's physicians treated the patients with the appropriate vitamins and were monitored by our laboratory. Many were helped by the vitamin replacement treatment, including those with complaints such as headache, joint and muscle pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, and ADHD. We published many of these cases in the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. (http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/index.shtml)

Ian Brighthope MD

Over 70% of Australians consume vitamins on a regular basis. A search of the department of health's database reveals no serious adverse reactions or deaths have occurred in the Australian population over the past ten years from the use of complementary medicines. There is an extreme bias against very low to extremely low risk products by government regulators and health professionals working within and outside the establishment institutions.

Robert Jenkins DC MS

I have been in practice for 52 years and have treated thousands of patients with diet and nutritional supplements for numerous health conditions ranging from hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and many others. I have yet to experience adverse patient reactions from taking nutritional supplements. I have lectured second year medical students at two medical schools in the Philadelphia PA area. When I asked those students how much nutritional training they had received, they all held up their hands with the sign of zero. The pharmaceutical industry makes sure medical students are trained in how to prescribe their drugs, while no positive mention is made of nutritional supplements. Why would anyone think that our modern medical doctors are to be considered authorities on nutritional supplementation for health conditions when they are not trained to do so? When this lack of nutritional education is combined with the news media's ignorance of supplements and their benefits, we have ‘the blind leading the blind’.

Gert Schuitemaker PhD

In the Netherlands, a report of the Dutch Health Council states that less than 2% of the population is eating according to official dietary guidelines.[6] Moreover, the authorities state that, even if a person is eating according to the dietary guidelines, he is not getting enough vitamin A, D, folic acid, iron, selenium and zinc.[7] Research in a Dutch hospital showed that 40% of patients at the time of admission were malnourished.[8] So, dietary supplements are necessary. Usually, chronic diseases, developing with increasing age, are treated with medicines, inevitably accompanied with the risk of severe side effects and unnecessary deaths. While the basis of many chronic diseases is a metabolic disturbance and nutritional deficiencies, the best treatment approach is good nutrition, including the use of dietary supplements. The ‘danger’ of vitamins and minerals lies in chronic deficiencies, not in alleged toxic effects. Following the scientific literature on a daily basis, in 30 years, I have not seen any harmful effect from supplements.

Damien Downing MD

The more toxins you are exposed to, the more nutrients you will use up in dealing with them. Every year, we are exposed to more and more toxins, and our DNA has had no time to adapt. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, fluorine, pesticides including the newer ones like glyphosate (‘Roundup’), flame retardants that are even contaminating the Arctic; and hundreds of thousands of other new-to-nature molecules that every human has to deal with. And like it or not, pharmaceutical medications are mostly toxins too.

At the same time, intensive farming, soil depletion and poor diets (often foisted on us for spurious reasons such as fear of cholesterol) mean that it's normal to be deficient now. We are deficient in vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients as well.

What chance does a human have? A much better one if she doesn't buy the hype from big companies, the dogma from pharma-paid scientists, and the bullying from governments. Take your vitamins.

Steve Hickey PhD

Over the past three centuries, the frequency of deficiency and infectious diseases has been reduced, through improved nutrition and better hygiene. Throughout this time, however, the role of nutrition has been belittled by the authorities. These same authorities now reject the idea that nutritional supplements can prevent our current chronic diseases. Thus, as a result of such authoritarian medicine, we may have replaced the horrors of pellagra, scurvy, and rickets with those of dementia, heart disease, and cancer. If so, it is likely that people in the future will look back with similar dismay on the current and needless destruction of health. How will we answer them, when they ask how could we have allowed this to happen?

Dean Elledge DDS MS

The high-carbohydrate, nutrient-poor diet is a primary contributing factor in dental diseases.[9] Vitamin D and vitamin C are safe to use in dentistry to help the patient recover from dental diseases. Vitamins in general help reduce inflammation, and antioxidant vitamins reduce the inflammation in periodontal disease. Vitamin supplements improve antioxidant reserves.

Michael Ellis MD

I see so many patients in conventional general practice who are deficient in vitamins. I had one patient who had ended up in a hospital neurosurgical unit only to be found to have severe B12 deficiency. The foods that most people eat are high in sugar, processed, and denatured of essential nutrients. All patients need, at the very least, daily multivitamins.

Ralph Campbell MD

We have had lots of talk of the alleged ‘toxicity’ of vitamins over the decades I have been in paediatric practice. I remain leery of the validity of such accusations. Most are just uninformed regurgitation of poorly designed studies. If alert, a clinician can easily detect vitamin deficiencies, and with experience, quickly spot sub-optimal vitamin levels. The medical establishment seems to be increasingly aware of vitamin D, B12 and folic acid deficiency. What is taking the media so long?

Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada MD

I have been a physician for 35 years. For the last 20 years, I have worked with combining general medicine with nutritional (orthomolecular) medicine, the practice of preventing and treating disease by providing the body with optimal amounts of substances which are natural to the body, principally vitamins and minerals. I have had good opportunity to compare the results of my work as a GP from the time before I got knowledge of vitamins and minerals as therapeutic substances with the time after I had learned to integrate them in my work with patients. I can today certify that I have seen a great number of very positive results after beginning to integrate vitamins in my clinical work. The results have been particularly fine in neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, and in hormonal and infectious diseases. During these last 20 years I have not seen severe side effects of orthomolecular substances. On the contrary, I have often been able to decrease the dosage of strong pharmaceutical drugs that carry severe side effects. This has led to a completely new and better quality of life for my patients, and for myself as a doctor.

Conclusion

The old saying remains true: the person who says it can't be done should not interrupt the person successfully doing it. Progressive doctors prescribe vitamins because they work. If your doctor doesn't ‘believe’ in vitamins, maybe it is time for him or her to change such an antiquated belief system in favour of the true clinical evidence.

Further Reading

How to Learn More about Nutritional Medicine: Information Archive and Locating a Practitioner http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml

How Doctors Use (Or Should Use) Vitamin Therapy http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n25.shtml

A Guide to Free, Peer-Reviewed Nutritional Medicine Information Online http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v07n08.shtml

Intravenous Vitamin C as Cancer Therapy: Free Access to Twenty-One Expert Video Lectures Online http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v07n03.shtml

Additional Resources on Nutritional Therapeutics http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n27.shtml

References

1. Li K, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg). Eur J Nutr. Jul 22 2011.

2. Suh DC , Woodall BS, Shin SK , Hermes-De Santis ER. Clinical and economic impact of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Ann Pharmacother . 34(12):1373-9. 2000.

3. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA . 15;279(15):1200-5. 1998.

4. Carlson LA: Nicotinic acid: the broad-spectrum lipid drug. A 50th anniversary review. J Intern Med 258: 94-114. 2005.

5. Nissen SE, and Wolski K: Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med, 356: 2457-2471. 2007.

6. Significant trends in food consumption in the Netherlands. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2002; publication no. 2002/12.

7. Voedingscentrum. Richtlijnen goede voedselkeuze. [The Netherlands Nutrition Centre. Guidelines Good Nutritional Choice]. 2011.

8. Naber TH, Schermer T, de Bree A et al. Prevalence of malnutrition in nonsurgical hospitalized patients and its association with disease complications. Am J Clin Nutr. 66(5):1232-9. Nov 1997.

9. Elledge DA. Effective hemostasis and tissue management. Dentistry Today, p150. Oct 2010.

Further Information

Andrew W Saul PhD - Editor and contact person. omns@orthomolecular.org

Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource. Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: www.orthomolecular.org  

http://orthomolecular.org/subscribe.html     http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml   

Find a Doctor

To locate an orthomolecular physician near you: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml 

Editorial Review Board

Ian Brighthope MD (Australia)

Ralph K. Campbell MD (USA)

Carolyn Dean MD ND (Canada)

Damien Downing MD (United Kingdom)

Michael Ellis MD (Australia)

Martin P. Gallagher, MD, DC (USA)

Michael Gonzalez, DSc  PhD (Puerto Rico)

William B. Grant, PhD (USA)

Steve Hickey, PhD (United Kingdom)

James A. Jackson, PhD (USA)

Bo H. Jonsson, MD PhD (Sweden)

Thomas Levy, MD JD (USA)

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