Research: VAN EIJSDEN and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 164

Abstract

VAN EIJSDEN and COLLEAGUES,  Department of Epidemiology, Documentation, and Health Promotion, Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  mveijsden@ggd.amsterdam.nl investigated the association between maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids measured early in pregnancy and foetal growth.

Background

Maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids are claimed to affect foetal growth, yet evidence is limited.

Methodology

Amsterdam pregnant women (n = 12 373) were invited to complete a questionnaire (response 67%) and donate blood around the 12th pregnancy week for nutrient analysis. For 4336 women, fatty acid concentrations were measured in plasma phospholipids (gas-liquid chromatography). Associations of these concentrations with birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) risk were analyzed (liveborn singleton term deliveries, n = 3704).

Results

Low concentrations of individual n-3 fatty acids and 20:3n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), but high concentrations of the other n-6 fatty acids and the main dietary trans fatty acid (18:1n-9t) were associated with lower birth weight (estimated difference in univariate analysis -52 to -172 g for extreme quintile compared with middle quintile). In general, SGA risk increased accordingly. After adjustment for physiologic, lifestyle-related and sociodemographic factors, low concentrations of most n-3 fatty acids and 20:3n-6 and high concentrations of 20:4n-6 remained associated with lower birth weight (-52 to -57 g), higher SGA risk, or both (odds ratios: 1.38-1.50). Infants of the 7% of women with the most adverse fatty acid profile were on average 125 g lighter and twice as likely to be small for gestational age.

Conclusion

An adverse maternal fatty acid profile early in pregnancy is associated with reduced fetal growth, which, if confirmed, gives perspective for the dietary prevention of lower birth weight.

References

van Eijsden M, Hornstra G, van der Wal MF, Vrijkotte TG and  Bonsel GJ. Maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acid profile early in pregnancy and term birth weight: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(4): 887-95. Apr 2008.

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