Research: SEN and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 218

Abstract

SEN and COLLEAGUES, Department of Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada studied the anti-diabetic properties and mechanisms of North American ginseng (NAG) as an alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes.

Background

North American ginseng (NAG) has received increasing attention as an alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Extract of the NAG root has been reported to possess anti-diabetic properties, but the underlying mechanisms for such effects have not been identified.

Methodology

Here we investigated the effects of NAG root extract on type 1 and 2 diabetes and the underlying mechanisms involved for such effects. Type 1 [C57BL/6 mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induction] and type 2 (db/db) diabetic models were examined. Groups of diabetic mice (both type 1 and 2) were treated with alcoholic extract of the NAG root (200 mg/kg BW/day, oral gavage) for 1 or 2 months following onset of diabetes.

Results

Ginseng treatment significantly increased the body weight in type 1 diabetic animals in contrast to the type 2 model, where it caused diminution of body weight. Blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels diminished in the diabetic groups of both models with NAG treatment. Interestingly, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly increased in the STZ-diabetic mice, whereas they were reduced in the db/db mice following NAG treatment. Histological and morphometric analyses (islet/pancreas ratio) of the pancreas revealed an increase in the islet area following the treatment compared to both the untreated diabetic groups.

Conclusion

These data indicate that NAG possibly causes regeneration of beta-cells resulting in enhanced insulin secretion. On the other hand, in type 2 diabetes, the additional effects of NAG on body weight might have also resulted in improved glucose control.

References

Sen S, Querques MA and Chakrabarti S.  North American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) prevents hyperglycemia and associated pancreatic abnormalities in diabetes. Journal of Medicinal Food. 16(7):587-92. Jul 2013.

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