Research: NIDHI and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 238

Abstract

NIDHI and COLLEAGUES, (1)Department of Molecular Nutrition, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, CSIR, Mysore, Karnataka, India set out to establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in hospital population of South India.

Background

To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in hospital population of South India.

Methodology

In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women) above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system.

Results

Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2%) participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8%) and 14 (0.4%) subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22) and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46). However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51) and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22). Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z) and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001) with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively.

Conclusion

Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.

References

Nidhi B, Mamatha BS, Padmaprabhu CA, Pallavi P, Vallikannan B(1). Dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: a hospital based study.  Indian J Ophthalmol. 61(12):722-7. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.120218. Dec 2013.

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