Research: MOLLARD and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 223

Abstract

MOLLARD and COLLEAGUES, explored the roles of sugar and fat intake as determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity in overweight adolescents at risk of type  2 diabetes.

Author Information:

(1)Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (KDMW); CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (LR); and  the Diabetes Research Group Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (LB).

Background

Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis, an important precursor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are undefined.

Methodology

The authors explored the roles of sugar and fat intake as determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity in overweight adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a cross-sectional study of dietary patterns and adipose tissue distribution in 74 overweight adolescents (aged: 15.4 ± 1.8 y; body mass index z score: 2.2 ± 0.4). Main outcome measures were hepatic steatosis (≥5.5% fat:water) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and visceral obesity (visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio ≥0.25) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Main exposure variables were dietary intake and habits assessed by the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire.

Results

Hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity were evident in 43% and 44% of the sample, respectively. Fried food consumption was more common in adolescents with hepatic steatosis than in adolescents without hepatic steatosis (41% compared with 18%; P = 0.04). Total fat intake (β = 0.51, P = 0.03) and the consumption of >35% of daily energy intake from fat (OR: 11.8; 95% CI: 1.6, 86.6; P = 0.02) were both positively associated with hepatic steatosis. Available carbohydrate (β = 0.54, P = 0.02) and the frequent consumption of soda were positively associated with visceral obesity (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 34.0; P = 0.03). Daily fibre intake was associated with reduced odds of visceral obesity (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.98; P = 0.02) but not hepatic steatosis.

Conclusion

Hepatic steatosis is associated with a greater intake of fat and fried foods, whereas visceral obesity is associated with increased consumption of sugar and reduced consumption of fibre in overweight and obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.

References

Mollard RC(1), Sénéchal M, MacIntosh AC, Hay J, Wicklow BA, Wittmeier KD, Sellers EA, Dean HJ, Ryner L, Berard L, McGavock JM. Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 99(4):804-12. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.079277. Apr 2014. Epub 2014 Feb 12.
 

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