Research: LUTGENDORF and co-workers,

Listed in Issue 145

Abstract

LUTGENDORF and co-workers, Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.  susan-lutgendorf@uiowa.edu, have explored the effect of age on the responsiveness to hypnotic analgesia during medical procedures.

Background

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of age on responsiveness to self-hypnotic relaxation as an analgesic adjunct in patients undergoing invasive medical procedures.

Methodology

In a prospective trial, 241 patients were randomized to receive hypnosis, attention, and standard care treatment during interventional radiological procedures. Outcome measures were Hypnotic Induction Profile scores, self-reported pain and anxiety, medication use, oxygen desaturation, and procedure time. Growth curve analyses, hierarchical linear regressions, and logistic regressions using orthogonal contrasts were used for analysis.

Results

Hypnotizability did not vary with age (p = .19). Patients receiving attention and hypnosis had greater pain reduction during the procedure (p = .02), with trends toward lower pain with hypnosis (p = .07). As age increased, patients experienced more rapid pain control with hypnosis (p = .03). There was more rapid anxiety reduction with attention and hypnosis (p = .03). Trends toward lower final anxiety were also observed with attention and hypnosis versus standard care (p = .08), and with hypnosis versus attention (p = .059); these relationships did not differ by age. Patients requested and received less medication and had less oxygen desaturation with attention and hypnosis (p < .001). As age increased, oxygen desaturation was greater in standard care (p = .03). Procedure time was reduced in the attention and hypnosis groups (p = .007) independently of age.

Conclusion

Older patients are hypnotizable and increasing age does not appear to mitigate the usefulness of hypnotic analgesia during invasive medical procedures.

References

Lutgendorf SK et al. Effects of age on responsiveness to adjunct hypnotic analgesia during invasive medical procedures. Psychosomatic Medicine 69 (2): 191-199, Feb-Mar 2007.

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