Research: LINDE and co-workers,

Listed in Issue 137


LINDE and co-workers, Technische Universitat Munchen, Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, Kaiserstrasse 9, Munich, Germany, 80801,, have reviewed (79 references) Echinacea in the prevention and treatment of the common cold.


Preparations of the plant Echinacea are widely used in some European countries and in North America for common colds. Most consumers and physicians are not aware that products available under the term Echinacea differ appreciably in their composition, mainly due to the use of variable plant material, extraction methods and addition of other components. The aim of this review was to assess whether there is evidence that Echinacea preparations are 1) More effective than no treatment; 2) More effective than placebo; 3) Similarly effective to other treatments in the prevention and treatment of the common cold.


Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared mono-preparations of Echinacea with a placebo, no treatment, or another treatment for the prevention or treatment of common colds. Outcomes of interest in prevention trials were numbers of individuals with one or more colds, and severity and duration of colds; and in treatment trials total symptom scores, nasal symptoms, and duration of colds.


16 trials including a total of 22 comparisons of an Echinacea preparation and a control group (19 with placebo, 2 with no treatment, 1 with another herbal preparation) met the inclusion criteria. All trials except one were described as double-blind. The majority had reasonable to good methodological quality. 3 comparisons investigated prevention of colds and 19 comparisons tested treatment of colds. A variety of different Echinacea preparations were used. None of the three comparisons in the prevention trials showed an effect over placebo. Comparing an Echinacea preparation with placebo as treatment, a significant effect was reported in nine comparisons, a trend in one, and no difference in six.


There is some evidence that preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea might be effective for the early treatment of colds in adults but results are not fully consistent. Beneficial effects of other Echinacea preparations, and for preventative purposes might exist but have not been shown.


Linde K, Barrett B, Wolkart K, Bauer R, Melchart D. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1) : CD000530, 2006.

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