Research: LAWSON and CALDERON,

Listed in Issue 23


LAWSON and CALDERON, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Services, Touro College, Dix Hills, NY 11746, USA conducted two trials testing the inter examiner reliability of Applied Kinesiology manual testing.



In the first trial, 3 practitioners, each with more then 10 years' experience using muscle testing, tested 32 healthy people in order to compare their agreement regarding the strength or weakness of right and left piriformis and right and left hamstring muscles. The second study had the same 3 examiners test 53 individuals for strength or weakness of pectoralis and tensor fascia lata muscles bilaterally. RESULTS: In the first trial, although there was significant agreement between examiners for piriformis muscles, little agreement was found with the hamstring muscles. In the second trial, significant agreement occurred with pectoralis muscles, but not with the tensor fascia lata muscles.




Lawson A and Calderon L. Inter examiner agreement for applied kinesiology manual muscle testing. Percept Mot Skills 84(2): 539-46. Apr 1997.


Reproducibility and reliability in muscle testing has always been a subject of vigorous debate and this issue needs to be resolved urgently, in light of the large number of practitioners who use muscle testing as a diagnostic tool.

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