Research: GIAVAROTTI and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 225

Abstract

GIAVAROTTI and COLLEAGUES, (1)Instituto de Química, USP, Cidade Universitária, Avenida Lineu Prestes 748, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil; (2)Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Química e Farmacêuticas, UNIFESP, Rua Arthur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil; (3)Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Química e Farmacêuticas, UNIFESP, Rua Arthur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil ; Departamento de Hematologia e Oncologia, FMABC, Avenida Príncipe de Gales 821, 09060-650 Santo André, SP, Brazil; (4)Departamento de Medicina, UNIFESP, Rua Sena Madureira 1500, 04021-001 São Paulo,  SP, Brazil; (5)Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, UNIFESP, Rua Sena Madureira 1500, 04021-001  São Paulo, SP, Brazil investigated the relationships between oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a late-onset, progressive degenerative disorder that affects mainly the judgment, emotional stability, and memory domains. AD is the outcome of a complex interaction among several factors which are not fully understood yet; nevertheless, it is clear that oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are among these factors.

Methodology

65 elderly subjects (42 cognitively intact and 23 with probable Alzheimer's disease) were selected for this study. We evaluated erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma levels of total glutathione, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, and coenzyme Q10. These antioxidant parameters were confronted with plasmatic levels of protein and lipid oxidation products. Additionally, we measured basal expression of monocyte HLA-DR and CD-11b, as well as monocyte production of cytokines IL1-α, IL-6, and TNF-α.

Results

AD patients presented lower plasmatic levels of α-tocopherol when compared to control ones and also higher basal monocyte HLA-DR expression associated with higher IL-1α production when stimulated by LPS.

Conclusion

These findings support the inflammatory theory of AD and point out that this disease is associated with a higher basal activation of circulating monocytes that may be a result of α-tocopherol stock depletion.

References

Giavarotti L(1), Simon KA(2), Azzalis LA(2), Fonseca FL(3), Lima AF(2), Freitas MC(2), Brunialti MK(4), Salomão R(4), Moscardi AA(5), Montaño MB(5), Ramos LR(5), Junqueira VB(2). Mild systemic oxidative stress in the subclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease.  Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013:609019. doi: 10.1155/2013/609019. 2013. Epub Dec 18 2013.

Comment

The findings that α-tocopherol levels were lower in AD patients is an interesting finding which may lead to a further understanding of the pathology process of Alzheimer’s.

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