Research: FEENEY and COLLEAGUES,

Listed in Issue 248

Abstract

FEENEY and COLLEAGUES,  (1)Department of Medical Gerontology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. feeneyjo@tcd.ie studied the relationship between Macular pigment (MP) and cognitive function in adults 50 years of age and over.

Background

Macular pigment (MP) is comprised of the carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which selectively accumulate at the macula (central retina) of the eye and are neuroprotective. These carotenoids are also present in the brain, and evidence suggests a close correlation between retinal and brain concentrations.

Methodology

The authors investigated the relationship between MP and cognitive function in 4453 adults aged ≥ 50 years as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) was determined using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry-a quick and non-invasive way of measuring the concentration of the pigment.

Results

Lower MPOD was associated with poorer performance on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.026) and on the Montreal cognitive assessment (p = 0.016). Individuals with lower MPOD also had poorer prospective memory (p = 0.011), took longer time to complete a trail-making task (p = 0.003), and had slower and more variable reaction times on a choice reaction time task (p = 0.000 and 0.001). These associations were only slightly attenuated following -06adjustment for physical and mental health. There was no significant association between MPOD and verbal fluency, word recall, visual reasoning, or picture memory.

Conclusion

Overall, the findings support the theory that xanthophyll carotenoids impact on cognitive function, underscoring the need for exploration of novel, non-invasive biomarkers for cognitive vulnerability and preventive strategies.

References

Feeney J(1), Finucane C, Savva GM, Cronin H, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Kenny RA. Low macular pigment optical density is associated with lower cognitive performance in a large, population-based sample of older adults.  Neurobiol Aging. 34(11):2449-56. Nov 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.05.007. Epub Jun 12 2013.

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