Research: DEBNATH and VENKATSUBRAMANIAN,

Listed in Issue 220

Abstract

DEBNATH and VENKATSUBRAMANIAN, Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India monozeet@gmail.com discuss recent advances in psychoneuroimmunology relevant to schizophrenia therapeutics.

Background

Immunological understanding of neurological and cognitive alterations of schizophrenia has made a significant breakthrough in unfolding the pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia, at least in a group of patients. Such psycho-neuro-immunological aberrations essentially argue for an alternative treatment approach based on immunomodulation in schizophrenia.

Methodology

Results

Recent findings in schizophrenia have shown exaggerated immuno-inflammatory responses due to persistent systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation involving microglia activation. The existing antipsychotic drugs have shown substantial benefits in the control of positive symptoms, but they have not demonstrated adequate immuno-dampening effects specifically and effectively. However, a group of emerging nonsteroidal as well as other anti-inflammatory drugs currently being used as an adjunct therapy seem to exhibit increased target specificity and effectiveness in reducing symptom severity to some extent.

Conclusion

The anti-inflammatory drugs that have been shown to reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibit microglia activation have paved the way for better outcomes of schizophrenia treatment. However, many of the currently tested anti-inflammatory drugs often lack methodological robustness. The identification of novel target(s) that will integrate the processes evoked by various risk determinants into a common signalling pathway is urgently required, and this may take immunomodulation into a new therapeutic domain in schizophrenia.

References

Debnath M and Venkatasubramanian G.  Recent advances in psychoneuroimmunology relevant to schizophrenia therapeutics. [Review]  Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 26(5):433-9, Sep 2013.

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