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Vaccine Technology: Types of Vaccines, How Vaccines are Produced, mRNA Technology

by John Hamlin(more info)

listed in vaccination, originally published in issue 268 - February 2021

Ever since the development of the first vaccine in 1796, the technology behind vaccinology has progressed beyond the scope of the ordinance. The right to get vaccinated and live a life free of fear of suffering at the hands of easily preventable diseases is a basic human right, which is why vaccines are instituted in expanded immunization programs of governments, worldwide. Furthermore, agencies like WHO fund millions of dollars towards research, each year, for advanced vaccine production as well as the wide-scale implementation of immunization programs through free and easily available vaccines.

Vaccines are administered as a means of active or passive immunization. They can be classified as live/attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, conjugate, or antibodies. The difference between these classes is the state of virus or bacterial organisms it can fight against. A live/attenuated vaccine is one that contains the literal “live'' form of the organisms which have been debilitated to the extent that they are no longer fatal to human life. However, the vaccine elicits an immune reaction that generates antibodies that provide active immunization to the host. These include the rotavirus, MMR - measles, mumps, and rubella - and chickenpox vaccines. Inactivated vaccines contain a part of the organism like a polysaccharide chain or protein that is harmless even to immunocompromised individuals, but since it is still foreign to the body, it generates an immune response that provides immunity. Inactivated vaccines include polio (IPV) and the Hepatitis-A vaccine. Bacteria and viruses release toxins that are curated into a vaccine whose administration generates an immune response. Toxoid vaccines make use of these toxins alone, whilst conjugated vaccines are a combination of polysaccharides, consolidated with the counterpart toxin, so they elicit an even stronger immune response.


Vaccine candidate mechanisms for SARS-CoV-2. Courtesy  Wikipedia

The newest type of vaccine currently under trial is the mRNA vaccine which consolidates the use of the ribonucleic acid component of the organism it is meant to provide immunity against. The antibody response generated by the body is effective in substantiating acquired immunity against this organism. The vaccine against COVID-19 is to be the first of this type.

The steps involved in vaccine manufacturing are generating the immune response by making prototypes, isolating them, adding recombinant technology and adjuvant, stabilizers, and preservatives as needed. It is an intricate process and requires careful evaluation and monitoring at all steps. Vaccines are also temperature sensitive, which makes this entire process quite intricate.

Considering the sensitive nature of the whole process, vaccines must be carefully handled, in safe and clean environments. For that purpose, cleanrooms are set up which are specially designed labs, designated to eliminate error and contamination in production. Trained professionals are hired for working there and they undergo rigorous commandments to meet international criteria of a safe vaccine.

Cleanrooms implement strict quality control measures in the lab environment. They ensure the maintenance of air pressure and quality. They also overlook quality assurance through proper implementation of requirements like PPE, instilling performance of media fills, and control of environmental bioburden. Cleanrooms also maintain a sterile environment by filtering out all kinds of pathogens and using negative pressure mechanisms to release any toxins produced within the production site.

Safe, rapid, large-scale manufacturing calls for the installation of cleanrooms since labs are only fit for smaller clinical trials. For this purpose, the use of cleanrooms is becoming increasingly popular and in-demand in the vaccine making industry. 


  1. Tom said..

    Thanks for the explanation of vaccines. The current Covid potions are not technically vaccines, but are gene therapy technologies. They are being created using computer algorithms that simulate what the Covid-2 pathogen (particle, bacteria, whatever) might look like as they have not actually used a known particle of Covid virus. Purely guesswork, in my view.

    None of these concoctions are being trialed to prevent death, stop the transmission of any disease or protect those with the most risk (mainly the elderly and those with pre-existing health conditions). So what is their purpose? And it will not be known until sometime in 2023 how well, if at all, these potions have worked... for anyone getting these shots, you are now part of the ongoing trial lasting 2-3 years.

    Any other vaccine is always created with the supposition that they will protect an individual against infection that could eventually lead to death (the fear factor in spades). In other words, we are pushed by the medical system to blindly (no questions asked) accept the idea that we will be saved from dying if we are vaccinated. That is not the case with these new RNA/DNA altering therapies.

    Never mind that real independent long term case studies are virtually non-existent to extract the results of any vaccine(s) usage as they pertain to having measurable benefits. There is virtually no field data that supports vaccine usage verses non-vaccine usage. And there are very few studies about the long term effects of the adjutant aluminum which is used in most vaccines. One of many extremely toxic materials I do not want to be subject to.

    These are some of the reasons why I have not had any vaccinations in 40 years...I am age 71 and relatively healthy and on no medications.

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