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Electromagnetic Therapy

by Cyril Smith, Ph.D.(more info)

listed in energy medicine, originally published in issue 27 - April 1998

Everyone who is involved in any of the many branches of Complementary Medicine whether as a practitioner or as a patient, is likely to be involved with some aspect of electromagnetism in the therapy. These include the many disciplines listed in the Directories at the end of Positive Health. Writers of articles in past issues of Positive Health have already provided many examples in support of the above quotation. In particular, Issue 16 (Dec 96 / Jan 97) covered many topics with a clear electromagnetic implication. This article sets out to show the deeper and less obvious involvements of electromagnetic fields. Sometimes, it will be necessary to quote very large or small numbers, for this it is simplest to use the powers of ten written for example as 106 for a million and 10-6 for its reciprocal, one millionth.

Complementary Medicine

“We are accustomed to having men jeer at what they do not understand”. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
When ten years ago now, we were considering Complementary Medicine in the context of the book Electromagnetic Man1, we covered only those therapies for which some involvement with the electromagnetic phenomena as described in that book could then be proffered. The following paragraphs summarise the possible electromagnetic involvements that we then considered. For more detail and for source references please refer to Chapter 7 of Electromagnetic Man.

Acupuncture

The art and philosophy of Classical Chinese Acupuncture cannot be understood in Western scientific terms according to Kenyon. Although there are a thousand locations on the body called ‘acupuncture points’ and modern electroacupuncture techniques are finding still more, these are not distinguished by any observable structural features in the body tissues. The writer has proposed that the acupuncture meridians represent lines of coherence of electromagnetic oscillations set up in the presomite stage of the embryo and which remain intact as the organism develops, one end connecting with the eventual target organs through the endoderm and mesoderm the other end reaching to the epidermis, ear and pituitary through the ectoderm.

Although the electrical resistance of the skin does show a precise decrease within a few millimetres of the classical Chinese acupuncture points and can be used as an aid in locating them as well as for measurements, each point relates to a specific and remotely situated body organ or function which can be affected or stimulated. This may be through the insertion of a blunt-ended needle of metal or ivory; alternatively, the effects may be produced by the application of weak electric currents or current pulses, or highly coherent radiation from a low-power laser or a millimetre-wave oscillator.

However, acupuncture is not an exercise in meridian plumbing; it is a philosophy of life that involves checks and balances which determine health or disease. The life forces, body energy or Chi are supposed to circulate through the meridians 25 times day and night. This is yet another of the circadian rhythms in the body. Wever has shown how the synchronism of some of these rhythms can be affected by the environment and particularly by electromagnetic fields which include the naturally occurring Schumann Radiation that is itself subject to the effects of tides and extraterrestrial radiation in the upper atmosphere.

Darras and De Vernejoul in Paris, injected radioactive tracers at acupuncture points and using a gamma-ray camera, found that the radioactivity travelled along the acupuncture meridian with a velocity of 3-5 cm/min, the right speed to give the 25 circulations per day or night. It was found to be slower in the case of diseased organs. They confirmed that the radio-isotope did not diffuse appreciably if injected other than at an acupuncture point, and that it did not enter into the lymphatic system or the blood circulation. It penetrated a tournequet preventing blood circulation. It diffused only towards the target organ if injected at an acupuncture point a part way along a meridian. The rate of diffusion along the meridian increased when an acupuncture point was stimulated. There are reports from China and Japan that acupuncture points can also be sources of biophotons.

Any needle, metal or ivory, inserted at an acupuncture point will generate some electrical contact potential, this may be small but the body is capable of extreme electrical sensitivity. The practice of rotating the needle may effect the removal of an accumulated ‘Helmholtz Double-Layer’ of ions and restore the original electrochemical potential.

Modern acupuncture now makes extensive use of electrical devices which are used in many ways, both for diagnosis and therapy. Although, in many cases, these pieces of apparatus are clearly versions of that school physics experiment – Wheatstone’s Bridge or else, they are high-gain, low-frequency amplifiers and filters; this need not imply that they are actually responding in the frequency band for which they were designed. A feature of this apparatus is the use of a single wire to connect the patient to the apparatus. In such cases, the signal cannot be a circulating electrical current but, must be electromagnetic coherence which can propagate down a single wire just as heat (electromagnetic incoherence) can propagate along a poker or saucepan handle.

Bach Remedies

Bach Remedies represent a system of herbal remedies devised by medical practitioner, Edward Bach. He had convinced himself that dew taken from plants had absorbed their clinical herbal properties. He then found that the same result could be more conveniently obtained if the appropriate materials were placed in a glass bowl of pure spring water in strong sunlight for a few hours. These observations are now significant in the context of electromagnetic oscillations by living systems, the ability of water to “remember” frequencies and that potentisation can take place (slowly) by contact.

Biofeedback

Biofeedback uses instrumentation, usually electronic, to display to the patient the magnitude of some body function parameter such as blood pressure or brain wave. The patient must somehow optimise this parameter using this feedback signal. It aims to train a person to control body functions usually regarded as involuntary. It demonstrates the power of mind over the body’s states of health and disease. It should be possible for a person to learn to diminish hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields by so training the autonomic nervous system.

Colour Therapy

Colour is merely the selection of particular frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from the visible part of the spectrum. It should be remembered that selective absorption and reflection of radiation occurs throughout the electromagnetic spectrum and not just in the visible region and that coloured dyes may give rise to clinical effects due to properties associated with spectral absorption outside the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Coloured light therapy usually makes use of an intense, full-spectrum light source and three quite broadband (50 nm) optical glass filters for the primary colours. In one apparatus light can be directed through fibre-optics light-pipes to specific points on the patient’s skin. In another apparatus, light is not applied to the patient but is directed to photo-detectors the output of which are amplified and the resulting signal is fed to an electrical treatment probe.

It is not necessary to “see” light to be affected by its colour; a blind person can respond to colour and people can learn to distinguish colours with their fingertips. The effects of colour can also be imprinted into water exposed to light in coloured containers or from sunlight shining through vegetation.

Healing

Healing activity may proceed at spiritual and material levels, in both the healer and the patient. The electromagnetic sensitivity of a hypersensitive person can be several orders of magnitude greater than the electromagnetic signals emitted by the muscle activity of a healer’s hands and arms. If a healer is able to sense the necessary electromagnetic frequencies and then generate and apply these through biofeedback, there is no reason why the patient should not respond with a cure even in seconds. If the healer is able to thought-transfer health information to the patient, then healing might be effected through the patient’s own biofeedback mechanism even without the physical presence of the healer. If biofeedback may help correct a faulty regulatory system in the body; could it possibly help to correct a faulty spiritual system? 

Herbal Medicine

Herbal Medicine involves the use of plant materials for therapeutic purposes. It ranges from such dietary items as that ubiquitous infusion of the tea plant to the 13 plant drugs defined as “prescription only” medicines. Some 5,500 herbal products are available. The properties of plants that are of present concern are those associated with electromagnetic oscillations, including possible necrotic radiation as living plant material is digested. As in the context of Bach Remedies, one also needs to consider electromagnetic frequency effects which can be imparted to water from herbal products. These aspects of botanical materials will not be tested by biochemical assays.

Homeopathy

Homeopathy originates from the work of a German physician, Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, born at Meissen, who in 1755 became highly critical of the current medical prescribing of his time. Malaria known as the ‘ague’ used to be endemic in Europe – including in the marshes around London. He found that when he, as a healthy person, took small amounts of a remedy for malaria, chinchona bark, he produced a malaria-like fever in himself which persisted until he ceased to take the chinchona bark. The bark of the Chinchona tree, known to the Peruvian Indians as “fever-tree”, was ‘discovered’ in 1600 by a Jesuit missionary who had been cured of malaria with it by a native tribal chief.

Hahnemann proposed and used as self-evident two axioms contained in his “Law of Similars”.

Firstly, every medicine produces a pattern of symptoms in a healthy person resembling the symptoms of a disease which the medicine will cure in a sick person. These symptoms and therapeutic effects will be produced even when the medicine is highly diluted.

Secondly
, the remedy which produces effects in healthy persons most nearly matching the total symptom picture of the patient, will exert the greatest curative effect; the required dose is the minimum necessary to evoke the symptoms. 

The problem is to relate Hahnemann’s axioms to the criteria of modern science. In 1811, Avogadro deduced the principle that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. The actual number of molecules per mole (the molecular weight in grams) was measured by Loschmidt in 1865 and in the German literature it is known as Loschmidt’s Number according to the usual custom in science; elsewhere it is known as Avogadro’s Number. Its value which has been determined with high precision is 6.022045 x 1023 molecules per mole and is the same for all substances. This implies that when a homoeopathic preparation has been serially diluted 24 times, each by a factor of 10 (24X or D24 potency), or 12 times each by a factor of 100 (12C potency), there should be none of the original molecules left. Yet, clinical results (and veterinary and horticultural results) are claimed for homoeopathic preparations potentised at dilutions far higher than this and supported by research studies.

It is clear that physics and not chemistry is the science from which to seek an explanation. Whereas allopathic preparations are used in sufficient quantity to replace or swamp the body’s own chemicals, there can be no chemistry in homoeopathy with potencies beyond Avogadro’s Number, but the problems are still: What sort of bio-information is contained in a homoeopathic preparation? How does it interact with a living system to produce a clinical effect?

The important result that came from the writer’s own work with electrically hypersensitive patients was the demonstration that a sealed tube of water which in itself produced no clinical effects could be effective as an neutralising allergen dilution after exposure to a magnetic field alternating at a frequency which neutralised the patient’s reactions. Thus, a potency had been induced into the sealed water by frequency and magnetic field, and the water was able to retain this effect. The frequency pattern of a homoeopathic potency can be measured. It can be transmitted down wires and over the Internet it can be recorded on compact-disk and can be duplicated just like a magnetic tape or computer program and a bio-effective signal can be recovered at the end. The geomagnetic field is essential for the retention of potency; homoeopathic preparations are permanently erased by magnetically shielding even for an instant. 

Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is concerned with the therapeutic use of water from natural sources which are reputed to have healing properties, this includes drinking it and bathing in it. The spa towns of Europe in the last century reflect past popularity. The possibility of electromagnetic memory effects in water adds a further dimension to what may appear to have been a diversion for the wealthy but, which is regarded as a cost-effective therapy for workers in Eastern Europe. Water from such sources usually contains only stimulatory or therapeutic frequencies, there is an absence of stressful frequencies.

Rocard in Paris, has shown that water sets up an electromagnetic field which can be detected by a very sensitive instrument. He wrote, “It is this property which permits diviners to detect water running between particles of rock in the ground.... We know nothing of the physical disposition of molecules in ‘activated’ water. It can be produced empirically by various methods; for example, by electromagnetic fields...”.

‘Activated’ water was also studied by Piccardi in Florence. When heated, it de-scales boilers converting the insoluble scale into a colloid. The algae Chara foetida loses its normal calcareous membrane by precipitation in ‘activated’ water. The behaviour of colloids in ‘activated’ water, particularly those containing organo-metallics, has been the subject of much research. Preparata and Del Giudice, theoretical physicists in Milan, have recently been able to explain certain unusual colloidal effects using the quantum theory of coherent electromagnetic fields.

Hypnosis

Hypnosis is a technique for getting a person into a condition between waking and sleeping in which memory states for events in the very distant past may be accessed. It was used as a therapy by the ancient Greeks, but it achieved notoriety in Europe around the 1760s through the activities of Mesmer who used the technique in a theatrical manner. Hypnotic effects may be provoked during the testing of allergy patients. It should be remembered that such persons may have an electromagnetic hypersensitivity and be able to react to electromagnetic fields emitted by another person, besides reacting to environmental chemicals and fields.

Kinesiology

Kinesiology makes use of an effect whereby persons confronted with a substance to which they are allergic, experience a sudden drop in the available force from the voluntary muscles. This empirical observation has led to a number of testing techniques for assessing allergic responses.

Certain persons are able to use a dowser’s wand or a pendulum to assess their likelihood of developing allergic reactions to foods etc. It is likely that dowsing phenomena are electromagnetic in origin, probably associated with changes in muscle strength or small involuntary muscle movements which the wand or pendulum amplify. The writer has developed these techniques for the measurement of coherent frequencies and resonances in water and other substances.

Kirlian Photography

Kirlian Photography involves the production of a photographic or video-tape record of a high-voltage corona discharge in the air around the object to be photographed at a frequency too high for it to be perceived or be hazardous.

The hands and feet of human subjects are often recorded (the pads in the case of animals). When a Kirlian photograph is made, the alternating electric field is in effect applied across two capacitances connected in series. One represents the capacitance of the air film between the specimen and the photographic film and will have a smaller capacitance and hence a larger voltage than the other capacitance which depends on the object being photographed and its physiologically and clinically dependent electrical impedance.

The observed Kirlian patterns change with a person’s mental and physical state and have been used as a qualitative indicator of the efficacy of a particular course of therapy and for certain diagnostic purposes. It is interesting that the acupuncture points of the body can be observed in this way. Kirlian pictures taken of blood and other tissue samples have also been used for diagnostic purposes.

The precise physical mechanisms involved in the formation of the Kirlian image are not known. Ionisation is a dark process; the light comes from recombination processes and in moist air these are extremely complicated. It appears that most of the light recorded in Kirlian photographs comes from what is termed corona, which is a region of electrically neutral but ionised gas (plasma) that does not propagate to form a breakdown channel between the electrodes, usually because of a very non-uniform electric field.

The range of experimental conditions capable of giving Kirlian photographs is very wide – with frequencies from Hertz to Megahertz, a variety of waveforms, pulse repetition rates and with voltages from kilovolts to hundreds of kilovolts but, with currents not exceeding a tenth of a microamp. Almost any kind of film, black-and-white or colour, will record Kirlian pictures. A film with a speed rating DIN 10 is considered to be optimal. If the object to be Kirlian photographed can be taken into a photographic darkroom it can be placed in direct contact with the film; otherwise the film can be enclosed within an envelope of a black plastic which is completely light opaque and electrically insulating. The object is placed on the outside of this envelope. A small air gap will always be present between the object and the film; its thickness is not critical. The Kirlian discharge takes place in the air gap and the resulting light exposes the film. Living objects are usually connected to ground and the high voltage electrode placed in contact with the reverse side of the film or its black plastic envelope.

Ingenbergs in Munich, has overcome the need for the photographic process by using an electrically-conducting, transparent-coating (tin oxide) on a plate-glass electrode on which the objects are placed. The Kirlian discharges are seen through the glass and recorded on videotape from a highly sensitive TV camera. This enables Kirlian images to be correlated with biological rhythms and reactions.

At distances of the order of atomic dimensions from a surface in a high electric fields, electrons are literally drawn out of the surface (field emission). The main interactions are between these electrons and the phonons (quanta of acoustic energy) of the infra-red vibrational modes of surface adsorbed molecules. The physical mechanisms which control the electron energies and number densities of electrons in gases under electric stress have now been worked out by Christophorou and co-workers. The important properties of the Kirlian imaging gases are: electron attachment energies, electron scattering cross-sections and electron impact ionisation energies. Under the experimental conditions of Kirlian photography, electrons which have acquired energies greater than about 4 eV (electron-volts) will first lose their energy by elastic scattering from the nitrogen molecules in the air gap. When their energy has been reduced below about 1 eV, they can become attached (and therefore immobilised) to molecules such as oxygen. Between these two energies, the energy loss processes may be made even more efficient by the presence of contaminants, such as highly polar bio-molecules which can be more efficient at electron scattering than nitrogen.

Naturopathy

Naturopathy makes use of the natural power of the body to heal itself, perhaps with some assistance. Kirlian photography may be used to diagnose illness in the pre-clinical stage and to monitor the progress of healing. Hippocrates was aware of the body’s powers of self-healing; Paracelsus distinguished doctors who healed miraculously from those who healed through medicine; Mesmer referred to these powers as ‘animal magnetism’; Reichenbach distinguished them from the forces of chemistry, electricity or magnetism; Lakhovsky attributed them to electromagnetic resonances in the cell capable of emitting and absorbing electromagnetic radiation.

Negative Ion Therapy

Negative Ion Therapy corrects the effects of unbalance of air ionisation which occurs particularly in urban environments and close to overhead power lines but which can also occur in association with geological and meteorological conditions. The only (almost) clean air left in the whole world nowadays is to be found at the foot of a glacier; contamination condenses out on its cold surface. In the country, the air may contain 300–1000 negative ions/cubic cm. These will be mostly negatively charged oxygen. This is the environment in which evolution took place. Civilisation, with pollution and air-conditioned buildings, reduces this concentration and may even create an excess of positive ions. These are associated with the restlessness, anxiety, irritability, depression, headaches, nausea, and eye troubles of the “sick-building syndrome” although, additional factors such as sensitisation by high levels of formaldehyde may be involved. Modern ion generators should not give off any ozone during operation.

In certain parts of the world there are ill-winds that come from deserts bringing with them a ten-fold drop in humidity, a rise in temperature, and an increase in positive ion concentration. In Nature negative ions are generated by water droplet formation – springs and fountains, mountain weather and clouds, and by vegetation.

Orgone Therapy

Orgone Therapy was the brain-child of Reich, one of Freud’s pupils, who broke away from the Master and eventually set up his laboratories in Orgonon, U.S.A. in 1934. His ‘orgone accumulator’ consisted of layers of wood and metal in a box, or a stack of metal pipes; he directed this energy through a tube and used it for healing purposes. He found that he got an adverse reaction with radioactive materials and termed this Deadly Orgone (DOR). Any metal/insulator structure will resonate at some electromagnetic frequency. Electromagnetically hypersensitive subjects can be affected by such resonators. His accumulators resembled laser resonators so one should consider whether his apparatus was capable of using water vapour in the air for the generation of coherent submillimetre laser oscillations.

Osteopathy

Osteopathy involves the manipulation of the body, particularly the spine. The possible connection with electromagnetic phenomena lies in the fact that bone has electromechanical properties which are now considered to be due to the electrostreaming of ions rather than piezoelectricity. Manipulation will generate electrical potentials but it remains to be shown whether these alone would be clinically effective. If the natural streaming currents generated by functional activity in connective tissues influence the tissue, then the currents produced by the natural mechanical oscillations of the bone in normal activity may be very significant.

Pattern Therapy

Pattern Therapy relates shapes to biomedical effects. Hypersensitive patients can be triggered by passive microwave resonators or regular metallic structures in their environment such as metal railings. Pattern is coherence in space rather than in time, and as such it only needs to be scanned as in a TV camera, a disk or tape player, for it to be converted to a coherent frequency of an electromagnetic or acoustic field.

Pyramid Healing

Pyramid Healing also uses shape to affect living systems but in this case it is exclusively concerned with pyramid shapes having the proportions of the Great Pyramids of Egypt. Any electromagnetic rationale behind such propositions must derive from similarities with the geometries of acoustic and electrical resonators. In the 1930s, Bovis, a French holiday-maker in Egypt, noticed that small animals which had strayed into the Great Pyramid and starved to death had spontaneously dehydrated and mummified; they had not decomposed. Subsequently, he built in Paris a scale replica of the pyramid and replicated the effects, including the preservation of fruit and vegetables. The critical dimensions for the pyramid are determined by having the height equal to the radius of a circle whose circumference is equal to the perimeter of the square base of the pyramid, which is aligned exactly along magnetic North-South. The alignment of the ancient pyramids is accurately along the magnetic meridian as it was at the time of building. The structures although originally stone can also be cardboard or metal.

The published reports of Bovis’ work came to the attention of a Prague radio engineer, Karel Drbal, who carried out his own experiments and concluded that there was, “A relation between the shape of the space inside a pyramid and the physical, chemical and biological processes going on inside that space.” The properties of water became implicated in these results through a pyramid-shaped, razor blade sharpness preserver which he devised. In this, both the pyramid structure and the blade edge must be aligned magnetic North-South. He obtained a patent for this in Czechoslovakia where prospective patents first have to be tested and proved of value; it took metallurgists 10 years to discover that traces of water on the blade edge greatly reduced its strength and that placing a used blade under a pyramid somehow dried out this water.

Radiesthesia

Radiesthesia is the French term for the use of dowsing for medical diagnosis and the selection of remedies. The radiesthetist takes a clinical history from the patient and then mentally concentrates on questions relating to the condition of the patient, while observing a pendulum, and then interprets its response. The pendulum can be calibrated against known clinical specimens positioned relative to a “witness” on a rule or chart. The rule is usually placed East-West with the radiesthetist facing North or South. Possible remedies, for example homoeopathic potencies, can be selected for the patient in a similar manner. The technique is clearly at the boundary of mind and matter because radiesthetists can operate remotely from the patient, for example, using a “witness” in the absence of the patient or with the patient on the telephone.

Radionics

Radionics is another of the difficult to comprehend techniques in which the operator seems to be an essential part of the instrumentation. The origins of radionics go back to the beginning of the present century when an American physician, Abrams, percussed the abdomen of a patient with cancer of the lip; he found a change of the percussion sound which occurred only when the patient faced to the West. He was able to elicit the same change in percussed sound from a healthy person when a tube containing a piece of malignant tumour was placed on the forehead. 

De la Warr developed Abrams’ original radionics techniques and instrumentation in England. Radionics instruments are not described in detail even in books on the subject. They do not contain conventional electronic circuitry and are not usually powered electrically. If it is remembered that ordinary electronic components such as variable resistors and lengths of wire, have very different properties in the microwave region and that persons can respond to electrically resonant configurations, then one sees radionics equipment as a set of tunable resonators excited by electromagnetic signals emitted by the patient, with the resonances sensed by the operator or some form of electronic circuit. It must be remembered that electronic circuits will often respond to oscillations at frequencies far outside the range intended by the designers. This is the sort of thing that electronics engineers discuss under the heading – ‘Electromagnetic Compatibility’. 

De la Warr succeeded in photographing patterns which related to radiations associated with objects and pathological specimens. He made a number of models of cameras which functioned as an aid to the operator’s ‘extra-sensory perception’. Such a camera is said to have photographed in the course of over 10,000 exposures only what the operator knew or was deliberately thinking about. This technique gets one into the area of possible interactions between mind and matter.

It seems to be necessary for a “suitable operator” to load the photographic plates into the holder as some form of preconditioning. To obtain a developable photographic grain, it is only necessary by any means to cause a pair of electrons to transfer from a silver halide crystal to the gelatin matrix. 

Sound Therapy

Sound Therapy covers the techniques whereby sounds are used for therapeutic purposes. It extends from music and speech, the healing prayers and mantras of religions, to the use of specific frequencies to mimic the natural resonances in bones which, due to injury, are no longer generated during ordinary movement. Manners has evolved a system of applying audible sound directly to the body for healing applications. It must be realised that all sounds other than noise (the waves-on-the-beach sound) have a more or less well defined pitch and are coherent oscillations. Since water and the many biomolecules are electrical dipoles they can convert a mechanical or acoustic oscillation to an electrical oscillation and conversely. Some hypersensitive patients react to sounds of the same frequency as those of the electromagnetic oscillations which affect them. The ability of a musical ear to pick out one ‘wrong note’ from a large number of players and singers is an example of that selectivity in coherence which man can achieve. 

Therapies not Covered in Electromagnetic Man

We did not then cover specifically aromatherapy, crystal healing, massage, mind/body therapies and the oriental therapies. The developments of the past decade now allow some comments to be made in respect of these. Work with hypersensitive patients has shown that reactions can be triggered chemically and neutralised with electromagnetic frequencies, and vice versa. Without the duality between frequency and chemical structure it would not be possible to do chemical analysis by spectroscopy.

Regarding aromatherapy, Callahan has shown that insects can react to pheromones in the air under conditions where the molecules could not reach them and that they must be sensing the radiation from the molecules. The remarks made in respect of Pattern Therapy and Colour Therapy must together be applicable to Crystal Healing where there is both colour and geometrical structure. At a recent Conference in Urbino, Italy, a speaker drew attention to the similarity between the five ancient and oriental “elements” and five homoeopathic substances which had similar proving symptoms, for example fire and sulphur. For these there must also be unique frequency patterns. Massage will result in stimulation of connective tissue. Working in Dallas, the writer has found that in vitro connective tissue is normally imprinted with brain-wave like frequencies and that these can be erased and different frequencies imprinted which are then retained in the cultured daughter cells. Pischinger has shown the importance of the Ground Regulatory System which operates through connective tissue in controlling homeostasis and every defence and inflammatory reaction.

Mind/Body Therapies

In regard to these therapies, the writer has carried out a few simple experiments to demonstrate the possibility mind-matter interactions in something as basic as homoeopathic potentisation. A control experiment was to hold an erased tube of water in the hand and mentally concentrate on a particular frequency. The result was no imprint although some healers can imprint water in this way.

The next experiment was to hold an erased tube of water in the hand and while mentally concentrating on a particular frequency to succuss the tube. The result was an imprint of the frequency being held in mind. This worked for both audio and radio frequencies and thus cannot be just a musical or acoustic memory although, it should be remembered that some musicians do have absolute pitch. Then, an erased tube of water was held in the hand while mentally concentrating on a particular frequency. The tube was succussed near a toroidal coil connected to an oscillator tuned to a different frequency. The result was that both the oscillator’s and the mind’s frequencies were imprinted together without interference.

Most chemicals have some intrinsic frequencies which are not erased by magnetic shielding. Chemical elements usually have one frequency and simple ionic crystals usually have three frequencies. They probably arise from structured water associated with the chemical. The writer measured these frequencies in his entire stock of laboratory chemicals before their disposal on his retirement. Mentally concentrating on a chemical substance and succussing a tube of erased water held in the hand resulted in its previously measured frequencies being found imprinted.

The mere holding of an erased tube of water in the hand and mentally concentrating on a particular chemical known to be at a distance while succussing resulted in no imprint. However, going to the chemical, holding it briefly and then replacing it before repeating the experiment did result in frequencies being imprinted and subsequent measurement of the chemical’s frequencies gave those values already imprinted. This confirms that frequencies do not have to be known in Hertz for imprinting to occur.

In 1994, the writer had measured a set of potencies of thyroxine prepared by Endler in Graz. Mentally concentrating on thyroxin D10 while holding and succussing a tube of erased water resulted in no imprinting, its memory had not been retained over the intervening years. But, after briefly holding a bottle of thyroxin D12, the subsequent holding and succussing an erased tube of water while mentally concentrating on thyroxine D12 did result in the correct imprinting of its frequencies as previously measured but, which had not been referred to immediately prior to this experiment.

These experiments show how careful must be the precautions taken in the preparation of homoeopathic remedies if the desired information is to be correctly potentised and, how one person might interact with another in the course of any therapy.

The Basic Physics Involved

Sorry about this! It is really necessary for understanding the electromagnetic involvement in living systems. I have made it as simple as I can without losing accuracy. Orthodox medicine has developed with one arm tied behind the back through its neglect of physics and its concentration on chemistry. In physics, there is an Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg’s) which translates into the biological sciences as saying that one cannot simultaneously know with perfect precision all the details of the chemical pathways as well as all the details of the timing and switching of the individual reactions; the more you know about what is happening, the less certain you are as to when it happens.

Electricity

Electricity is but one aspect of the chemical bond. Electrification by friction frees electric charges by damage to the rubbed surface, this is static electricity. Unlike charges attract, like charges repel, this is a macroscopic demonstration of atomic forces. A battery frees electric charges through a chemical reaction. A single cell battery gives about 1.5 Volts. This is the energy per electron of the chemical reaction, about 150 kilojoules per mole in the chemist’s units. If the battery is in a torch, the current which flows generates a magnetic field in the surrounding space, the current heats the lamp filament to a temperature at which it gives out yellow light. This might have a mean frequency of about 6 x 1014 Hz (Hertz = cycles per second), a wavelength of about 0.5 µm (microns) and consist of a beam of photons (light quanta) each having a mean energy about 2.5 electron Volts. The human eye is exquisitely sensitive, a single light quantum has a probability of giving a visual sensation in a single retinal cell; the eye is also highly adaptive – a snow scene may give a retinal cell 109 photons per second to cope with. This ability to adapt to the environment is characteristic of a healthy organism.

The flow of electric current along a wire is the average drift of electrons being jostled about by the energy of the heat of the room (about 1/40 of a Volt). There are so many electrons, one for each metal atom, that although a current of 1 Amp represents 8 x 1018 electrons per second, they only have to fight through their jostling crowd of fellows at a velocity of about 80 x 10-6 m per second to achieve a current of 1 Amp.

AC and Radiation

If the direction of the current keeps reversing, this is said to be an alternating current. Electrical power is supplied like this for efficiency in generation and transmission. In the UK it reverses at 50 Hz, in North America at 60 Hz, other countries have one, or the other, or both! Any reversal, acceleration or oscillation of electric charge will result in energy being radiated away into space. The process is only efficient if the conductor is of a size comparable to the wavelength corresponding to the frequency (frequency x wavelength = velocity of propagation = 3 x 108 m/sec). At 50 Hz the wavelength is 6 x 106 m (almost the radius of the Earth) and its radiation is negligible. However, at mobile phone and computer frequencies, metal in glasses and clothing may be of wavelength dimensions, become resonant and enhance the effect of an environmental electromagnetic field.

Quantum Physics and Water Coherence

As usually represented, Electromagnetic Fields do not have any obvious connections with chemistry. For this, it is necessary to look into the quantum aspects of the electromagnetic field, there is no chemistry in the above “classical physics”. Living organisms are mostly water and it is in the electromagnetic quantum properties of water that one must seek their interactions. The relation between electromagnetic fields and their effects on biological systems and water did not become clear until the recent work of Preparata and Del Giudice using the mathematics of Quantum Field Theory (the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation) that they had applied with success to other branches of physics such as liquid helium, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and nuclear matter.

They showed that it is a fundamental property of water to have coherence (perfect order) in its lowest energy state at room temperature. For this, they considered what force could generate coherence in water. An electrostatic force would not work, it would be screened by ions; water is a non-magnetic substance; so, the interactions had to be through radiation. The only radiation available in water is at the frequencies of the chemical bonds.

Preparata and Del Giudice showed that all the water molecules within a certain critical volume could start to oscillate in unison (coherently) and that the water molecule resonance most likely to produce this is at 12.06 eV (electron-volts); radiation of this energy is in the ultra-violet part of the spectrum. It is close to the water ionisation potential of 12.6 eV (the energy needed to remove an electron from a water molecule) and hence any such coherence would be almost as stable as water itself, and disappear by boiling point. Unfortunately, this stability also makes physical measurements difficult. No laser-like energy pumping is required to achieve this coherence, it is fundamental to the molecular structure and physical constants of liquid water.

Their calculations showed that water could achieve this perfect coherence within domains of coherence 75 nm in size. Each whole domain would behave as a single molecule 108 times larger than a water molecule. This will slow down the propagation of electromagnetic waves between domains to a few metres per second, coherence length is now the constant parameter not velocity. There will be a similar reduction in frequency taking, for example, mobile-phone frequencies into the brain-wave frequency region.

These coherence domains would be interspersed with incoherent (random) liquid water in which all the classical physics takes place. This as disordered as water vapour. At room temperature, the coherent water fraction is 28% of the whole. This perfect coherence implies no disorder so each domain behaves as if it was at the absolute zero of temperature (-273°C) and this gives it some of the properties associated with superconductivity.

This model has enabled them to calculate from fundamental physics the experimentally correct values for many of the physical constants of water and qualitatively to explain its anomalies such as the maximum density being at +4°C. A two component model for water is not new, neither is the experimental evidence. Last century, Röntgen advocated a water/ice model and measured the viscosity of water between rotating plates finding ice-like behaviour at very small separations.

Vector Potentials (“Scalar Fields”)

The way that electromagnetic fields can interact with coherent water is through yet another component of the electromagnetic field, the magnetic vector potential. This arises as the mathematical consequence of a magnetic field always occurring in closed loops and so was originally regarded as a mathematical fiction without objective existence. Aharonov and Bohm predicted that a magnetic vector potential should produce a phase shift in the mathematical wave describing an electron. This predicted effect was subsequently confirmed by electron microscopy experiments. There is an equivalent effect for an electron at an electric potential so both an electric and a magnetic field can influence in a subtle way, any biological system through its coherent water content. This implies that all living systems must be macroscopic (large-scale) quantum systems.

Bibliography

•    Smith, C.W., Best, S. Electromagnetic Man: Health and Hazard in the Electrical Environment. London: Dent, 1989,1990; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989; Paris: Arys/Encre, 1995 (French); Bologna: Andromeda, 1997 (Italian).
    This book contains references to the material discussed in this article which was published before 1989. The following sources may be used for reference to later work:
•    Smith, C.W., Choy, R.Y.S., Monro, J.A. 1990. The Diagnosis and Therapy of Electrical Hypersensitivities. Clinical Ecology 6(4): 119-128.
•    Rea, W.J., Pan, Y., Fenyves, E.J., Sujisawa, I., Suyama, H., Samadi, N., Ross, G.H. 1991. Electromagnetic Field Sensitivity. J. of Bioelectricity 10(1&2): 241-256.
•    Ho, M-W., Popp, F-A., Warnke, U. (Eds.). Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication. Singapore: World Scientific, 195-212.
•    Endler PC, Schulte J (Eds.). Ultra High Dilution: Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 187-202.
•    Smith, C.W. 1995. Electromagnetic aspects of biological cycles. Environmental Medicine 9(3): 113-118.
•    Smith, C.W. 1994. Coherence in Living Biological Systems. Neural Network World 3: 379-388.
•    Smith, C.W. 1995. Measurements of the Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Biological Systems. Neural Network World 5: 819-829.
•    15th. Intl. Symp. on “Man and His Environment in Health and Disease: The Electrical Environment”, Dallas Texas, February 20-23, 1997. (Audio Tapes from: Professional Audio Recording, 2300 Foothill Blvd. #409, La Verne, CA 91750, U.S.A.).
•    Preparata, G. 1995. QED Coherence in Matter. Singapore: World Scientific.
•    Del Giudice, E., Preparata, G. 1994. Coherent Dynamics in Water as a Possible Explanation of Biological Membranes Formation. J. of Biological Physics 20: 105-116.
•    Del Giudice, E., Preparata, G. 1997. Electrodynamical Like-Charge Attractions in Metastable Colloidal Crystallites. Milan: University of Milan, Dept. of Physics, Publ. MITH-97-2 (Accepted for publication in Modern Physics Letters B).

Further reading

Electromagnetic Hazard and Therapy – A News Report on Non-Ionising Radiation. Information, PO Box 25, Liphook, Hants GU30 7SE, UK.

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About Cyril Smith, Ph.D.

Cyril Smith was born in London in 1930. He worked on radar research, the detection and intensification of medical X-ray images, the spectrum of the twilight sky  before he joined Salford University in 1964 where he taught and did research in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering until his retirement in 1989.
With over 100 publications, there have been four main streams of research activity through his career: instrument technology, biomedical electronics, dielectric liquids, and electromagnetic effects in biological systems, bio-materials and water. From 1973, co-operation with the late Professor Herbert Fröhlich, FRS led to his studies of the interaction of coherent electromagnetic fields with living systems and biological materials, and coherence effects in water. This work continues. He has in all probability seen and tested more electromagnetically hypersensitive patients than anyone else in the world with the cooperation of Professor W.J. Rea in Dallas, Texas, and Dr. Jean Monro in England.
He has written a book in cooperation with medical journalist Simon Best, entitled Electromagnetic Man. It was published by J.M. Dent in London (1989, 1990) and was awarded “Book of the Year – 1990” prize by Lamberts and the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

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