Research: ZHANG and others,

Listed in Issue 133


ZHANG and others, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA, have linked smoking, antioxidants, and the risk of osteoporosis.


The aim of this study was to investigate whether antioxidant intake was associated with risk of osteoporotic hip fracture and whether this association was modified by smoking status.


In a population-based case-control study, data on 1,215 men and women aged at least 50 who incurred a hip fracture during 1997-2001 and 1,349 age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire.


Among ever smokers, participants in the highest quintile of vitamin E intake had a lower risk of hip fracture compared to those in the lowest (odds ratio = 0.29, p for trend < 0.0001). The corresponding odds ratio for beta-carotene intake was 0.39 (p for trend = 0.0004), and for selenium intake it was 0.27 (p for trend = 0.0003). Vitamin C intake did not have a significant graded association with hip fracture risk among ever smokers. Similar findings were obtained when an overall antioxidant intake score was used (odds ratio = 0.19, p for trend < 0.0001). No similar associations were found in never smokers.


Antioxidant intake was associated with a reduced risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in these elderly smokers.


Zhang J, Munger RG, West NA, Cutler DR, Wengreen HJ, Corcoran CD. Antioxidant intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in Utah: an effect modified by smoking status. American Journal of Epidemiology 163 (1): 9-17, Jan 1, 2006.

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