Research: TEUT and co-workers,

Listed in Issue 128


TEUT and co-workers, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen, Germany, have assessed Enderlein's darkfield analysis of live blood.


In 1925, the German zoologist Gunther Enderlein PhD published a concept of microbial life cycles. His observations of live blood using darkfield microscopy revealed structures and phenomena that had not previously been described. Although very little research has been conducted to explain the phenomena Dr Enderlein observed, the diagnostic test is still used in complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to test the inter-observer reliability and test-retest reliability of 2 experienced darkfield specialists who had undergone comparable training in Enderlein blood analysis.


Both observers assessed 48 capillary blood samples from 24 patients with diabetes. The observers were mutually blind and assessed their findings according to a specific item randomization list that allowed observers to specify whether Enderlein structures were visible or not.


The inter-observer reliability for the visibility of various structures was kappa = .35 (95% CI: .27-.43), the test-retest reliability was kappa = .44 (95% CI: .36-.53).


This pilot study indicates that Enderlein darkfield analysis is very difficult to standardize and that the reliability of the diagnostic test is low.


Teut M, Ludtke R, Warning A. Reliability of Enderlein's darkfield analysis of live blood. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 12(4):36-41, Jul-Aug 2006.

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