Research: SCHOFIELD, Nursing, Un

Listed in Issue 85


SCHOFIELD, Nursing, University of Sheffield, evaluated Snoezelen [a multiplicity of different activities on the sensory level – light, noises, feelings, smells and taste] for relaxation in chronic pain management.


Snoezelen is a sensory environment purporting to produce relaxation. The study was designed to test Snoezelen against conventional relaxation in the pain clinic setting.


Pain, anxiety, depression, coping. self-efficacy, and disability were measured. Assessments were carried out at three time intervals.


The experimental group experienced significant reductions in pain (p = 0.002), and an improvement in self-efficacy (p = 0.02), as well as for sickness impact on the following scales: physical (p = 0.009), psychosocial (p = 0.009), recreation (p = 0.001), sleep (p = 0.001) and total sickness impact (p = 0.001). The control group experienced significant improvements in the psychosocial scale (p = 0.05), sleep scale (p = 0.01) and total sickness impact (p = 0.004).


The study suggests that Snoezelen environments are as effective as, if not slightly better than, teaching relaxation in the traditional pain clinic environment for chronic pain patients.


Schofield P. Evaluating Snoezelen for relaxation within chronic pain management. British Journal of Nursing 11 (12): 812-821, Jun-Jul 2002.

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